investing stock market terms dictionary
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Investing stock market terms dictionary yields on bonds definition

Investing stock market terms dictionary

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For example, a stock option is a derivative because its value…. You can also have the cash dividends you receive from the company automatically reinvested into more shares…. Disaster-related Investment Scams Natural disasters such as wildfires, floods and hurricanes often give rise to investment scams.

These scams can take many forms, including promoters touting companies purportedly involved in cleanup…. Discount A bond sold before it matures might not sell at full par value. If it sells below par, it is selling at discount. Discount Note Short-term obligations issued at a discount from face value.

Discount notes have no periodic interest payments; the investor receives the note's face value at maturity. Distribution Fees Fees paid out of fund assets to cover marketing and selling fund shares. These fees may cover advertising costs, compensating brokers and others who sell fund shares, payments for printing and…. Diversification Diversification is a strategy that can be neatly summed up as "Don't put all your eggs in one basket.

Dividend A portion of a company's profit paid to shareholders. Public companies that pay dividends usually do so on a fixed schedule although they can issue them at any time. Unscheduled dividend payments….

Dollar Cost Averaging Dollar-cost averaging means investing your money in equal portions, at regular intervals, regardless of the ups and downs in the market. This investment strategy can help you manage risk by following…. Early Withdrawal If a CD is redeemed before it matures, you may have to pay a penalty or forgo a portion of the interest. Earnings Per Share A public company's net profit divided by the number of its common shares. Department of Labor.

ERISA does not require employers to offer a pension plan. But it does require employers…. This type of plan should not be…. Enrollment Fee Fees that direct-sold college savings plans may charge to join in the program. ESG investing is a way of investing in companies based on their commitment to one or more ESG factors.

It is often also called sustainable…. Escheatment by Financial Institutions All states require financial institutions, including brokerage firms and transfer agents, to report when personal property has been abandoned or unclaimed after a period of time specified by state…. Ex-Dividend Dates To determine whether you should get a dividend, you need to look at two important dates.

They are the "record date" or "date of record" and the "ex-dividend date" or "ex-date. Exchange Fee A fee that some funds impose on shareholders if they exchange transfer to another fund within the same fund group. In return, investors…. Executing an Order When you place an order to buy or sell stock, you might not think about where or how your broker will execute the trade.

But where and how your order is executed can impact the overall cost of the…. Executive Compensation The federal securities laws require clear, concise and understandable disclosure about compensation paid to CEOs, CFOs and certain other high-ranking executive officers of public companies. Expense Ratio The fund's total annual operating expenses, including management fees, distribution fees, and other expenses, expressed as a percentage of average net assets.

Fair Disclosure, Regulation FD Regulation FD addresses the selective disclosure of information by publicly traded companies and other issuers. Regulation FD provides that…. Filing and Registration Fees The SEC collects fees under various provisions of the securities laws, including the following: Section 6 b of the Securities Act of for registrations of securities ; Section 13 e of the…. Fill-Or-Kill Order A Fill-Or-Kill order is an order to buy or sell a stock that must be executed immediately in its entirety; otherwise, the entire order will be cancelled i.

See GAAP. Financial Planners A financial planner typically prepares financial plans for his or her clients. The kinds of services financial planners offer can vary widely. Some financial planners assess every aspect of your…. Financial Product Examples of financial products include but are not limited to the following: stocks, bonds, derivatives, and currencies.

Financial Professionals — Background Checks You should check out the registration status and background of any financial professional before becoming a client, even if a close friend or family member recommends a financial professional. Fixed Annuity An insurance product that promises a minimum rate of interest while your account is growing.

The insurance company also guarantees that the periodic payment will be for a set amount for a fixed…. Fixed-rate Bond A long-term bond with a set interest rate. Floating-rate Bond or Variable or Adjustable rate Bond A bond whose interest rate is adjusted periodically according to a predetermined formula; it is usually linked to an interest rate index such as LIBOR.

Floor The lower limit for the interest rate on a floating-rate bond. Un fondo de capital variable…. The FCPA also requires publicly traded companies to maintain accurate books and records and to have a…. Foreign currency exchange forex A foreign currency exchange rate is a price that represents how much it costs to buy the currency of one country using the currency of another country.

Currency traders buy and sell currencies…. Foreign Exchange Markets Markets that trade currencies. The SEC and most foreign securities regulators are members…. Form K The federal securities laws require publicly reporting companies to disclose information on an ongoing basis. For example, domestic companies must submit annual reports on Form K, quarterly…. Form Q The federal securities laws require publicly reporting companies to disclose information on an ongoing basis.

For example, domestic issuers must submit annual reports on …. Form , Investment Income Interest and Dividends The federal tax laws require brokerage firms, mutual funds, and other entities to report on Form all investment income, usually interest or dividends, they have paid to investors during the…. Form This Form must be filed with the SEC by an affiliate of the issuer as a notice of the proposed sale of securities in reliance on…. Form 8-K In addition to filing annual reports on Form K and quarterly reports on ….

The form consists of two parts, both of which are available to the public on…. Advisers and brokers are required to deliver a relationship summary to you beginning in summer The relationship summary contains important…. Form D Companies may use an exemption under Regulation D to offer and sell securities without having to register the….

Por ejemplo, las empresas nacionales deben presentar informes anuales en el…. Por ejemplo, los emisores nacionales deben presentar informes anuales en el…. Formulario , ingresos por inversiones intereses y dividendos Las leyes tributarias federales requieren que las firmas de corretaje, fondos mutuos y otras entidades reporten mediante el Formulario todos los ingresos por inversiones, generalmente en forma….

El formulario consta de dos partes…. Fraudster A person whose goal is to con people out of their money. Free look Period Variable annuity contracts typically have a "free look" period of ten or more days. During this period, you are free to terminate your contract without paying any surrender charges and you will…. Freeriding In a cash account , an investor must pay for the purchase of a security before selling it. If an investor buys and sells a…. Freeze, Brokerage Account In a cash account , an investor must pay for the purchase of a security before selling it.

Front-end Load An upfront sales charge investors pay when they buy fund shares. It generally is used by the fund to compensate brokers. A front-end load is deducted from the purchase and reduces the amount…. Future Value The value of an asset at a specified date in the future.

Futures contract An agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of a commodity or financial instrument at a specified price on a particular date in the future. Futures Market Markets that trade futures contracts for commodities such as gold, oil or wheat, as well as financial futures. General Obligation Bond A municipal bond not secured by any assets; instead it is backed by the issuer's power to tax residents to pay bondholders. It is what companies use to measure their financial results.

These results include net income as…. Going Private A publicly held company generally means a company that has a class of securities that is registered with the SEC because those securities are widely held or traded on a national securities exchange. Brokerage firms typically limit the length of time an investor can leave a GTC…. Hedge funds typically have more flexible investment strategies than mutual funds.

The hallmark of an HYIP scam is the promise of incredible…. Holding Your Securities In general, securities may be held in three different ways. One way is to hold them in certificate form, where the securities are registered in your name on the books of the company, and you receive….

Holiday Schedules and Trading Hours for the National Securities Exchanges You can find the holiday schedules and trading hours for the national securities exchanges on each of their websites. Householding Rules Investors often invest in funds through a variety of individual and family accounts and, as a result, sometimes receive multiple copies of the same documents from those funds. To avoid duplication,….

Immediate Annuity This annuity has no accumulation phase. Instead, you start receiving annuity payments right after you purchase the annuity. Any portion of an IOC order that cannot be filled immediately will be cancelled.

Impersonators Impersonators may falsely claim to be affiliated with the SEC or another federal government agency in an attempt to steal your personal information or your money. Federal government agencies,…. Index Fund An "index fund" describes a type of mutual fund or unit investment trust UIT whose investment….

Indexed Annuities An indexed annuity is a type of annuity contract between you and an insurance company. It generally…. You can contribute each year up to the maximum amount allowed by the Internal Revenue Service. There are several…. When a company conducts a registered offering or an exempt offering…. Information Available to Investment Company Shareholders Before you invest in any registered investment company you should read its prospectus and any…. For more information about IPOs generally, see our ….

They have wide latitude in allocating IPO shares. While it can be difficult for individual investors to buy IPO shares, more firms, including…. Initial Public Offerings: Lockup Agreements Lockup agreements prohibit company insiders—including employees, their friends and family, and large shareholders—from selling their shares for a set period of time after an IPO.

In other words, the…. Insider Trading Illegal insider trading refers generally to buying or selling a security, in breach of a fiduciary duty or other relationship of trust and confidence, on the basis of material, nonpublic information…. Interest The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time. Interest rates may be fixed, meaning the rate is set and will not change, or may be variable or "….

Internet Fraud The Internet allows individuals or companies to communicate with a large audience without spending a lot of time, effort, or money. Anyone can reach tens of thousands of people by building an…. Interval Fund An interval fund is a type of investment company that periodically offers to repurchase its shares from shareholders.

That is, the fund…. Invest To engage in any activity in which money is put at risk for the purpose of making a profit. Common violations include misrepresenting important information about potential…. Investment Adviser An investment adviser is a firm or person that, for compensation, engages in the business of providing investment advice to others about the value of or about investing in securities — stocks,….

Investment Company A company that issues and invests in securities. The three types of investment companies are mutual funds, closed-end funds, and unit investment trusts. Investor Complaints The SEC receives many types of complaints from individual investors, including complaints against brokers, brokerage firms, investment advisers, transfer agents, mutual funds, and other market…. Issuer The entity obligated to pay principal and interest on a bond.

Late Payment of Interest on Bonds nvestors sometimes complain to the SEC staff about late payments of interest owed to them on their bonds. The SEC, however, does…. Lenders consider leveraged loans to have an above-average…. Loans, notes, bonds, and mortgages are forms of debt. These different forms all call for borrowers to pay back the amount they owe,….

Lifecycle Funds A diversified mutual fund that automatically shifts towards a more conservative mix of investments as it approaches a particular year in the future, known as its "target date. Limit Orders A limit order is an order to buy or sell a security at a specific price. A buy limit order can only be executed at the limit price or lower, and a sell limit order can only be executed at the limit….

Liquidity or Marketability Liquidity generally refers to how easily or quickly a security can be bought or sold in a secondary market. Liquid investments can be sold readily and without paying a hefty fee to get money when it….

Load The amount that investors pay when they buy front-end load or redeem back-end load shares in a mutual fund, similar to a commission. The SEC's rules do not limit sales loads a fund may charge,…. LIBOR is frequently used as the base for resetting rates on floating-rate securities. Rule 17f-1 under the…. Lost or Stolen Stock Certificates Brokerage firms, banks, transfer agents and corporations have procedures in place to help investors replace lost or stolen certificates.

If your securities certificate is lost, accidentally…. Lump Sum Payment A payment of a sum of money at one time, such as an inheritance. Maintenance Fee Fees that direct-sold college savings plans may charge for continued participation in the plan. Management Fee A fee paid out of fund assets to the fund's investment adviser for investment portfolio management. A fund's management fees appear under Annual Fund Operating Expenses in the fee table in the fund…. Margin Call If you buy on margin and the value of your securities declines, your brokerage firm can require you to deposit cash or securities to your account immediately, or sell any of the securities in your….

Market Capitalization Market capitalization is the value of a corporation determined by multiplying the current public market price of one share of the corporation by the number of total outstanding shares. Market Index A measurement of the performance of a specific "basket" of stocks considered to represent a particular market or sector of the U.

Market Indices A market index tracks the performance of a specific "basket" of stocks that represent a particular market or economic sector. Market Makers A "market maker" is a firm that stands ready to buy or sell a stock at publicly quoted prices. Learn More. Market Manipulation Market manipulation is when someone artificially affects the supply or demand for a security for example, causing stock prices to rise or to fall dramatically.

Market manipulation may involve…. Market Order A market order is an order to buy or sell a stock at the current market price. Unless you specify otherwise, your broker will enter your order as a market order. The advantage of a market order is…. Markups When a broker-dealer sells you securities out of its inventory, the broker-dealer acts as a principal in the transaction that is, selling to you directly the securities it holds. When acting in a….

Medallion Signature Guarantees: Preventing the Unauthorized Transfer of Securities If you hold securities in physical certificate form and want to transfer or sell them, you will need to sign the certificates and securities powers--a legal document, separate from a securities….

Mediation and Arbitration Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution, is a technique for the resolution of disputes outside the court system. The parties to a dispute refer it to arbitration by one or more persons….

Mergers Mergers are transactions involving the combination of generally two or more companies into a single entity. The need for shareholder approval of a merger is governed by state law. Typically, a…. The people behind these offers—…. Money Market Fund A money market fund is a type of mutual fund that has relatively low risks compared to other mutual funds and most other….

Money Markets A market that provides trading in short-term debt. Mortgage-Backed Securities and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations Mortgage-backed securities MBS are debt obligations that represent claims to the cash flows from pools of mortgage loans, most commonly on residential property.

Mortgage loans are purchased from…. Mutual Fund Classes Some mutual funds offer investors different types of shares, known as "classes. But each…. Mutual Fund Fees and Expenses As with any business, running a mutual fund involves costs. For example, there are costs incurred in connection with…. Mutual Fund Redemptions A mutual fund company generally must pay redemption proceeds to a shareholder within seven days of receiving a redemption request from the shareholder.

Exceptions apply on days when the New York…. Mutual Funds A mutual fund is an open-end investment company or fund. An open-end fund is one of three basic types of investment…. Mutual Funds, Past Performance This year's top-performing mutual funds aren't necessarily going to be next year's best performers. Net Asset Value "Net asset value," or "NAV," of an investment company is the company's total assets minus its total liabilities.

Net Income The profit earned by a company after all expenses and taxes have been deducted from revenue. No Action Letters An individual or entity who is not certain whether a particular product, service, or action would constitute a violation of the federal securities law may request a "no-action" letter from the SEC…. No-load Fund A fund that does not charge any type of sales load. But not every type of shareholder fee is a "sales load," and a no-load fund may charge fees that are not sales loads.

No-load funds also charge…. El Reglamento D de la Ley de Valores proporciona una serie de…. Offering Document or Official Statement or Prospectus The disclosure document prepared by a bond issuer that gives detailed financial information about the issuer and the bond offering.

Old Stock and Bond Certificates An old stock or bond certificate may still be valuable even if it no longer trades under the name printed on the certificate. The company may have merged with another company or simply changed its…. Online Trading Although you may save time and money trading online, it does not take the homework out of making investment decisions.

To avoid costly mistakes, investors who trade online should understand how our…. Open-end Company The legal name for a mutual fund. An open-end company is a type of investment company. Operating Expenses The costs a fund incurs in running the fund, including management fees, distribution fees, and other expenses. Options Options are contracts giving the purchaser the right — but not the obligation -- to buy or sell a security at a fixed price within a specific period of time.

Stock options are traded on a number of…. Order Types There are different types of orders investors can use to buy and sell stocks through a brokerage firm. Order types and trading instructions available to you may differ between brokerage firms. Pension See Defined Benefit Plan. Ponzi Schemes A Ponzi scheme is an investment fraud that pays existing investors with funds collected from new investors. Ponzi schemes are named after Charles Ponzi.

Portfolio The combined holdings of stock, bond, commodity, real estate and other investments by an individual or institutional investor. Premium The amount by which the price of a bond exceeds its principal par amount. Prepaid Tuition Plans A type of plan that lets an account owner purchase units or credits at participating colleges or universities for future tuition for the account beneficiary.

Prepayment The unscheduled partial or complete payment of the principal amount outstanding on a loan, such as a mortgage, before it is due. Prepayment Risk The risk that principal repayment will occur earlier than scheduled, forcing the investor to reinvest at lower prevailing rates. The ratio is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the…. Primary Market Markets in which newly issued securities are sold to investors and the issuer receives the proceeds. Principal The total amount of money being borrowed or lent; the initial amount of money invested.

Product Description A summary of key information about an ETF that explains how to obtain a prospectus. Profit Revenue minus cost; money made on a transaction. Promissory Notes Promissory notes are a form of debt that companies sometimes use to raise money.

They typically involve investors loaning money to a company in exchange for a fixed amount of periodic income. Prospectus A document that describes the mutual fund to prospective investors. Every mutual fund provides a prospectus with information about the mutual fund's investment objectives, risks, past performance,…. Proving Securities Ownership Proving securities ownership is easier if you can remember how the security was acquired. Brokerage Firm If you bought the security through a brokerage firm, contact the firm and ask if they have a….

You can attend the meeting and…. Proxy Statements: How to Find A company is required to file its proxy statements with the SEC no later than the date proxy materials are first sent…. Proxy Voting A way for shareholders to vote for corporate directors and on other matters affecting the company without having to personally attend the meeting. Public Company A company that offers its securities through an offering and now has those securities traded on the open market.

Members of the public who have questions about information available from the public reference room should contact the…. Purchase Fee A shareholder fee that some funds charge when investors buy mutual fund shares.

This is not the same as, and may be in addition to, a front-end load. Purchasing Power The amount of goods and services that can be purchased by a given unit of currency, taking into account the effect of inflation. Pyramid scheme organizers may pitch the…. Qualified Higher Education Expenses Includes tuition; room and board; mandatory fees; and, books, computers, and software if required. Quarterly Reports 10Q Each quarter, public companies file reports to the SEC containing unaudited financial statements and information about the company's operations in the previous three months.

A REIT is a company that owns and typically operates income-producing real estate or…. Real Return Real return is what is earned on an investment after accounting for taxes and inflation. Real returns are lower than nominal returns, which do not subtract taxes and inflation. Rebalancing Rebalancing brings a portfolio back to its original asset allocation mix. This is necessary because over time, some investments will grow faster than others, and holdings may become out of…. Recovering Funds Investors who are victims of securities law violations may be eligible to receive money recovered from fraudsters.

Sometimes a successful SEC enforcement action results in recovered funds being…. Redemption Fee A shareholder fee that some funds charge when investors redeem sell mutual fund shares. Redemption fees, which must be paid to the fund, are not the same as and may be in addition to a back-end…. Registered Owner A registered owner or record holder holds stocks directly with the company, rather than in "street name. Registration Statement A registration statement is a filing with the SEC making required disclosures in connection with the registration of a security, a….

Registration Under the Securities Act of The Securities Act of has two basic objectives: To require that investors receive financial and other significant information concerning securities being offered for public sale; and To…. Regla del Reglamento D La Regla del …. Reglamento del Acta de Valores Las leyes federales de valores pueden clasificar ciertos valores como restringidos o de control.

La venta de valores restringidos o de control en el mercado puede ser un proceso complicado. Bajo las…. Regulation A Under the federal securities laws, any offer or sale of a security must either be registered with the SEC or meet an exemption. Regulation Crowdfunding Crowdfunding refers to a financing method in which money is raised through soliciting relatively small individual investments or contributions from a large number of people. If a company would…. Regulation D Offerings Under the federal securities laws, any offer or sale of a security must either be registered with the SEC or meet an exemption.

Restricted Securities Restricted securities are securities acquired in an unregistered, private sale from the issuing company or from an affiliate of the issuer. Revenue The total amount of money, or gross income, generated by a company from selling its goods and services. Revenue Bond A municipal bond not backed by the government's taxing power but by revenues from a specific project or source, such as highway tolls or lease fees.

Reverse Stock Splits When a company completes a reverse stock split, each outstanding share of the company is converted into a fraction of a share. Annualized rate of return - The average annual return over a period of years, taking into account the effect of compounding.

Annualized rate of return also can be called compound growth rate. Asset allocation - The process of dividing investments among cash, income and growth buckets to optimize the balance between risk and reward based on investment needs. Asset class - Securities with similar features. The most common asset classes are stocks, bonds and cash equivalents.

Average maturity - For a bond fund, the average of the stated maturity dates of the debt securities in the portfolio. Also called average weighted maturity. In general, the longer the average maturity, the greater the fund's sensitivity to interest-rate changes, which means greater price fluctuation. A shorter average maturity usually means a less sensitive - and consequently, less volatile - portfolio. Balanced fund - Mutual funds that seek both growth and income in a portfolio with a mix of common stock, preferred stock or bonds.

The companies selected typically are in different industries and different geographic regions. A market in which prices decline sharply against a background of widespread pessimism, growing unemployment or business recession. The opposite of a bull market. Benchmark - A standard, usually an unmanaged index, used for comparative purposes in assessing performance of a portfolio or mutual fund. Beta - A measurement of volatility where 1 is neutral; above 1 is more volatile; and less than 1 is less volatile.

Blue chip - A high-quality, relatively low-risk investment; the term usually refers to stocks of large, well-established companies that have performed well over a long period. The term Blue Chip is borrowed from poker, where the blue chips are the most valuable. Board of Trustees - A governing board elected or appointed to direct the policies of an institution. The issuer promises to repay the full amount of the loan on a specific date and pay a specified rate of return for the use of the money to the investor at specific time intervals.

Breakpoint - The level of dollar investment in a mutual fund at which an investor becomes eligible for a discounted sales fee. This level may be achieved through a single purchase or a series of smaller purchases. Bull market - Any market in which prices are advancing in an upward trend. In general, someone is bullish if they believe the value of a security or market will rise.

The opposite of a bear market. Capital - The funds invested in a company on a long-term basis and obtained by issuing preferred or common stock, by retaining a portion of the company's earnings from date of incorporation and by long-term borrowing. Capital gain - The difference between a security's purchase price and its selling price, when the difference is positive. Capital gains ex-date - The date that a shareholder is no longer eligible for a capital gain distribution that has been declared by a security or mutual fund.

Capital gains long term - The difference between an asset's purchase price and selling price when the difference is positive that was earned in more than one year. Capital gains reinvest NAV - The difference between an asset's purchase price and selling price when the difference is positive that was automatically in vested in more shares of the security or mutual fund invested at the security's net asset value.

Capital gains short term - The difference between an asset's purchase price and selling price when the difference is positive that was earned in under one year. Capital loss - The amount by which the proceeds from a sale of a security are less than its purchase price. Capitalization - The market value of a company, calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the price per share. Cash equivalent - A short-term money-market instrument, such as a Treasury bill or repurchase agreement, of such high liquidity and safety that it is easily converted into cash.

Common stock - Securities that represent ownership in a corporation; must be issued by a corporation. Contingent deferred sales charge CDSC - A back-end sales charge imposed when shares are redeemed from a fund. This fee usually declines over time. Custodian - A bank that holds a mutual fund's assets, settles all portfolio trades and collects most of the valuation data required to calculate a fund's net asset value NAV.

Cut-off time - The time of day when a transaction can no longer be accepted for that trading day. Default - Failure of a debtor to make timely payments of interest and principal as they come due or to meet some other provision of a bond indenture. Distribution schedule - A tentative distribution schedule of a mutual fund's dividends and capital gains.

Diversification - The process of owning different investments that tend to perform well at different times in order to reduce the effects of volatility in a portfolio, and also increase the potential for increasing returns. Dividend - A dividend is a portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders.

Dividends provide an incentive to own stock in stable companies even if they are not experiencing much growth. Companies are not required to pay dividends. Dividend reinvest NAV - Dividends paid to the shareholder of record that are automatically invested in more shares of the security or mutual fund that are purchased at the security's net asset value. Dividend yield - Annual percentage of return earned by a mutual fund. The yield is determined by dividing the amount of the annual dividends per share by the current net asset value or public offering price.

Dollar cost averaging - Investing the same amount of money at regular intervals over an extended period of time, regardless of the share price. By investing a fixed amount, you purchase more shares when prices are low, and fewer shares when prices are high.

This may reduce your overall average cost of investing. Dow Jones Industrial Average Dow - The most commonly used indicator of stock market performance, based on prices of 30 actively traded blue chip stocks, primarily major industrial companies. The Average is the sum of the current market price of 30 major industrial companies' stocks divided by a number that has been adjusted to take into account stocks splits and changes in stock composition. Environmental, social and governance ESG integration - The systematic inclusion of financially material ESG factors in investment analysis and investment decisions, with the goal of enhancing long-term, risk adjusted financial returns:.

EPS - The portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock. EPS serves as an indicator of a company's profitability. Equities - Shares issued by a company which represent ownership in it. Ownership of property, usually in the form of common stocks, as distinguished from fixed-income securities such as bonds or mortgages.

Stock funds may vary depending on the fund's investment objective. Stock funds may vary, depending on the fund's investment objective. Ex-Dividend - The interval between the announcement and the payment of the next dividend for a stock. Ex-Dividend date - The date on which a stock goes ex-dividend. Typically about three weeks before the dividend is paid to shareholders of record.

Exchange privilege - The ability to transfer money from one mutual fund to another within the same fund family. Expense ratio - The ratio between a mutual fund's operating expenses for the year and the average value of its net assets. Expense ratio date - Amount, expressed as a percentage of total investment that shareholders pay annually for mutual fund operating expenses and management fees.

Federal Funds Rate Fed Funds Rate - The interest rate charged by banks with excess reserves at a Federal Reserve district bank to banks needing overnight loans to meet reserve requirements. The most sensitive indicator of the direction of interest rates, since it is set daily by the market, unlike the prime rate and the discount rate, which are periodically changed by banks and by the Federal Reserve Board. Federal Reserve Board The Fed - The governing board of the Federal Reserve System, it regulates the nation's money supply by setting the discount rate, tightening or easing the availability of credit in the economy.

Financial materiality - An event or information that are reasonably likely to impact the financial condition or operating performance of a company and should be considered during the investment decision-making process. Fixed income fund - A fund or portfolio where bonds are primarily purchased as investments. There is no fixed maturity date and no repayment guarantee. Fund - A pool of money from a group of investors in order to buy securities. The two major ways funds may be offered are 1 by companies in the securities business these funds are called mutual funds ; and 2 by bank trust departments these are called collective funds.

Green bonds - A type of fixed-income instrument that is specifically earmarked to raise money for climate and environmental friendly projects. Green Bond Principles - Voluntary process guidelines that recommend transparency and disclosure and promote integrity in the development of the Green Bond market by clarifying the approach for issuance of a Green Bond.

Growth investing - Investment strategy that focuses on stocks of companies and stock funds where earnings are growing rapidly and are expected to continue growing. Growth stock - Typically a well-known, successful company that is experiencing rapid growth in earnings and revenue, and usually pays little or no dividend. Growth-style funds - Growth funds focus on future gains.

A growth fund manager will typically invest in stocks with earnings that outperform the current market. The manager attempts to achieve success by focusing on rapidly growing sectors of the economy and investing in leading companies with consistent earnings growth. The fund grows primarily as individual share prices climb.

Impact investing - A sustainable investment style that seeks to generate measurable positive social or environmental impact alongside financial return. Investment themes include activities such as affordable housing, education and healthcare. Investment stewardship - Engaging with companies and voting proxies to ensure our clients' interests are represented and protected and the company is focused on responsible allocation of capital and long-term value creation.

Index - An investment index tracks the performance of many investments as a way of measuring the overall performance of a particular investment type or category. It tracks the performance of large U. Inflation - A rise in the prices of goods and services, often equated with loss of purchasing power.

Interest rate - The fixed amount of money that an issuer agrees to pay the bondholders. It is most often a percentage of the face value of the bond. Interest rates constitute one of the self-regulating mechanisms of the market, falling in response to economic weakness and rising on strength. Interest-rate risk - The possibility of a reduction in the value of a security, especially a bond, resulting from a rise in interest rates.

Investment advisor - An organization employed by a mutual fund to give professional advice on the fund's investments and asset management practices. Investment company - A corporation, trust or partnership that invests pooled shareholder dollars in securities appropriate to the organization's objective. Mutual funds, closed-end funds and unit investment trusts are the three types of investment companies.

Investment objective - The goal of a mutual fund and its shareholders, e. In exchange for signing a letter of intent, the shareholder would often qualify for reduced sales charges. A letter of intent is not a contract and cannot be enforced, it is just a document stating serious intent to carry out certain business activities. The performance of all mutual funds is ranked quarterly and annually, by type of fund such as aggressive growth fund or income fund.

Mutual fund managers try to beat the industry average as well as the other funds in their category. Liquidity - The ability to have ready access to invested money. Mutual funds are liquid because their shares can be redeemed for current value which may be more or less than the original cost on any business day.

Loads back-end, front-end and no-load - Sales charges on mutual funds. A back-end load is assessed at redemption see contingent deferred sales charge , while a front-end load is paid at the time of purchase. No-load funds are free of sales charges. Long-term investment strategy - A strategy that looks past the day-to-day fluctuations of the stock and bond markets and responds to fundamental changes in the financial markets or the economy.

Market timing - A risky investment strategy that calls for buying and selling securities in anticipation of market conditions. Maturity distribution - The breakdown of a portfolio's assets based on the time frame when the investments will mature. Median Market Cap - The midpoint of market capitalization market price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding of the stocks in a portfolio, where half the stocks have higher market capitalization and half have lower.

Money market mutual fund - A short-term investment that seeks to protect principal and generate income by investing in Treasury bills, CDs with maturities less than one year and other conservative investments. Morningstar ratings - System for rating open- and closed-end mutual funds and annuities by Morningstar Inc. The system rates funds from one to five stars, using a risk-adjusted performance rating in which performance equals total return of the fund.

Mutual fund - Fund operated by an investment company that raises money from shareholders and invests it in stocks, bonds, options, commodities or money market securities. NASDAQ is a computerized system that provides brokers and dealers with price quotations for securities traded over-the-counter as well as for many New York Stock Exchange listed securities.

The fund's NAV is calculated daily by taking the fund's total assets, subtracting the fund's liabilities, and dividing by the number of shares outstanding. The NAV does not include the sales charge. The process of calculating the NAV is called pricing. For a stock portfolio, the ratio is the weighted average price-to-book ratio of the stocks it holds.

Par value - Par value is the amount originally paid for a bond and the amount that will be repaid at maturity. Portfolio - A collection of investments owned by one organization or individual, and managed as a collective whole with specific investment goals in mind. Portfolio allocation - Amount of assets in a portfolio specifically designated for a certain type of investment.

Portfolio manager - The person or entity responsible for making investment decisions of the portfolio to meet the specific investment objective or goal of the portfolio. Preferred stock - A class of stock with a fixed dividend that has preference over a company's common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of assets. There are several kinds of preferred stock, among them adjustable-rate and convertible. Price-to-book - The price per share of a stock divided by its book value net worth per share.

Prospectus - Formal written offer to sell securities that sets forth the plan for proposed business enterprise or the facts concerning an existing one that an investor needs to make an informed decision. Prospectuses are also issued by mutual funds, containing information required by the SEC, such as history, background of managers, fund objectives and policies, financial statement, risks, services and fees.

Quality distribution - The breakdown of a portfolio's assets based on quality rating of the investments.

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