From super tankers to some of the most sophisticated LNG carri- ers. Inadequate ground and air traffic control infrastructure in Europe provoked a crisis in European air transport a few years ago. There was now a risk that a similar crisis could occur in the fast growing Asian-Pacific aviation market, warned Mr Pierre Jeanniot, the lata director-general, at the Farnborough Air Show in southern England.
Air traffic is continuing to grow faster in the Asia-Pacific region than in any other mar - ket lata as well as the leading aircraft manufacturers. The orders include two ATR72 aircraft, worth around m. The ATR consortium, which is jointly owned by Aerospatiale and Airbus, are forecasting annual air traffic growth aver- aging around 7 per cent over the next few years in the region, compared with overall world traffic growth of 5 per cent in the same period. Although a number of new air- ports were now opening in the area, he said these investments were already insufficient to cope with the expected growth of air travel in the region.
Although Europe had started to address the problem of con- gestion, more efforts were also needed to harmonise and mod- ernise European air traffic con- trol systems. At the same time. Europe needed more airport infrastructure to cope with an expected increase in European air passenger numbers from m this year to m by the turn of the century and as many as lbn by , Mr Jean- niot said.
In the longer term. Franchising is a growing trend in the European airline industry, with small regional niche carriers associating themselves with the marketing power and brand of large flag carriers to compete in the lib- eralised single European air- line market Cityflier, which already oper- ates five smaller ATR42 air- craft. ATR officials also confirmed Europe would have to adopt a satellite-based air traffic con- trol management system which would be able to deliver double the capacity and drastically reduce the existing costs of the current European system.
Mr Jeanniot also attacked government taxation policies on air transport, and especially the introduction in November of an airport departure tax in the UK. Taxes simply increase airline costs at a time when consumers are demanding lower fares," Mr Jeanniot said. The new UK airport tax was also attacked yesterday by Sir Colin Marshall, the British Air- ways chairman, who argued it would distort competition because it did not apply to other forms of transport including road, bus, rail and eventually Channel Tunnel high-speed trains services which will be competing directly against airline sendees.
Aerospatiale also believes that ATR, which currently has a share of around 53 per cent of the world's turbo-prop market, could become the focus of a broad rationalisation of the European turbo-prop industry, grouping not only BAEs operations but eventually other European producers.
Mr Noel For- geard, head of Matra Defence and Space, said that such deals were a practical way for the European defence industry to respond positively to the con- solidation of US companies. Speaking at the Farnbor- ough Air Show, Mr Forgeard said that all operational and strategic issues had been resolved.
However, he added that several technical prob- lems remained, inclnding those over differing account- ing standards. It is thought that BAe and Matra have agreed to form a joint venture of missile operations. Strong disagree- ments over the size of the pay- ments are also thought to be blocking the deal, which has been under discussion for the past 18 months. Mr Forgeard said that unlike some defence industry leaders be thought that Europe had to respond to the consolidation and cost reduction currently going on in the US industry, but that Europeans also had to be realistic and accept that there were greater barriers to consolidation m Europe.
Companies should accept that pooling interests into joint ventures, as with BAe- Matra, was a sensible next step, and that greater efforts had to be made to cut costs. He contra- dicted official Swedish reports which said that the French missiles were was less capable and more expensive than the US alternative.
After fiddling over China pol- icy for its first year, the admin- istration appears to have decided that, in spite of its mis- givings about human rights abuses, it would have to com- pete more aggressively with its competitors in Europe and Asia for a share of the world's fastest growing market. How Far Washington's emphasis on super-salesman- ship will prove compatible with other objectives in its relations with Beijing remains to be seen.
At one puint in a speech organised by the US-China Business Council, Mr Brown sounded more like a football coach than a government offi- cial. It is hard to imagine a Republican administration embracing with greater enthu- siasm commercial possibilities in China.
China has won hands down on human rights. They note that during the presidential campaign, Mr Clinton undertook to place commercial Issues at the cen- tre of foreign policy concerns. This approach had yielded the successful completion of negotiations on the North American Free Trade Agree- ment Nafta , and the Uruguay Round which had cleared the way for the establishment of the World Trade Organisation, the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
Mr Clinton's announcement on May 27 that he was renew- ing MFN more or less uncondi- tionally - token sanctions were retained - was the culmination of the policy review begun in the middle of last year. US offi- cials in Beijing say that while China has armed itself with tile necessary rules and regula- tions to deal with infringe- ments, enforcement is lax. US negotiators insist that China be obliged to accord the same market access privileges to its fellow Gatt members as those it will receive itself.
Bei- jing is arguing, however, that because China Is a developing country it should be granted special privileges for a lengthy transition phase. The Japan Automobile Importers Association yester- day total vehicle iuuprats were 23, last month. Of these 21, Imported cars accounted for Imported vehicle sales for the year are expected to reach , Ford , arguably the most aggressive exporter, though not the biggest, more than dou- bled its exports from America last August to The reversal in Ford's fortunes in Japan is precisely the kind of change which the framework talks were designed to bring about.
But there is little hope in Japan that these changes will help to break the impasse in the trade talks by inspiring the US to soften its Ifemanris that Tokyo commit itself to ensur- ing greater foreign imports in certain priority markets. Neverthe- less they have dragged on because of US insistence on a results-oriented approach to which Japan cannot agree," says a Japanese foreign minis- try official.
Both sides have agreed that no specific deadline for conclu- sion of the talks should be set but on September 30 the US is committed to deriding whether or not to name Japan as an unfair trade partner and start sanctions procedures under the Super trade bflL A US deci- sion against Japan could, in a worst case scenario, lead Japan to break off the talks, Japanese nffiriala have Said.
Such an outcome would have serious repercussions on the foreign exchange markets which have severely punished the US dollar on any sign of bilateral discord on trade. I think there will be a sharp rise of the yen.
Neither would a discourag- ing outcome of this week's meetings do much political good for a hard-pressed Presi- dent Clinton or for the shaky coalition government of Japan's Prime Minister. Mr Tomiichi Murayama. The optimistic view is that given the risks involved, both s ides will work at all costs to avoid a farther rift in relations.
Japanese authorities hope the US will agree to work out a partial deal that will at least enable the two to avoid a showdown and continue nego- tiating in areas where signifi- cant differences remain, nota- bly cars and car parts.
Agreement could be reached on insurance and government procurement, which would send a positive signal to the rest of the world. The danger is that, given the incentive to reach some kind of agreement and avoid a further fall-out, the issue will be resolved by simply fudging the wording so that each side can read the agreement in a way that suits their purposes.
Mr Keating's announcement came after talks with Mr Tomi- ichi Murayama, his Japanese counterpart The Australian leader gave firm backing fur Japan's attempt to become a permanent member of the UN security coimriL In return, Mr Murayama promised Australia that it would not be excluded form any trade accord between Tokyo and Washing- ton, believed to be the first such guarantee from a Japanese prime minister, said Australian officials. By Michiyo Nakamoto The Japanese Fair Trade Commission yesterday launched an investigation into more than 20 Japanese trading companies suspected of form- ing a cartel to decide which companies should win govern- ment contracts for overseas development aid projects.
The FTC investigated the offices of leading companies, including Mitsubishi Corp, Marubeni and Itochu among others, citing a possible breach of Japan's fair-trade laws. The raid, which comes as top-level US and Japanese negotiators meet for talks con- cerning how to open Japan's markets to more foreign goods and services, is likely to sup- port US allegations of Japan's widespread unfair trading practices which prevent for- eign companies from winning a fair share of business.
The suspicion of bid-rigging also coincides with recent US interest in winning more busi- ness stemming from Japanese overseas development aid. Most untied aid comprises yen loans which are directed towards large infrastructural projects such as the construction of dams. The latest allegation of cartel activity Involves the remaining 17 per cent of tied aid, about bn, which is grant-in-aid. For reasons of convenience, bidding for projects carried out on untied aid is open only to Japanese companies, mainly because the time span for con- ducting the bid and completing the project is usually restricted to one year.
Companies involved yester- day expressed surprise at the FTC investigation. Lean and mean, but is it fair? Frances Williams questions a world competitiveness rankings report T he world competitive- ness rankings represent a bold if not necessarily accurate stab at identifying what makes an economy suc- cessful.
This has proved both fascinating and puzding. It may come as no great sur- prise to see the U8 displace Japan as the world's most competitive economy. But does It really m ake sense to rank Singapore, with a population of less than 3m, above eco- nomic heavyweights such as Japan or Germany? Part of the problem relates to the desire to be fair to small economies. At an individual level, how- ever, the scoreboard pro- duces some odd results.
For instance. Only 2, question- naires were returned out of The US ascendancy over Japan largely reflects its early economic recovery while Japan has yet to emerge from its deepest recession in decades. Other problems arise with the choice of the criteria, availability of comparable information and the way data are combined to produce the overall rankings.
Korea, Singapore, Ireland «i«f Malaysia, with Colombia in 8th plaee. The most lacking in energy and enthusiasm among the 41 countries rated are, from bot- tom, the Czech Republic, Hun- gary, South Africa, Poland and Venezuela. Britain ranks 35th. Discussing the implications for changing competitiveness in a global economy, the report is in two minds. Prof Stephane Garelli, director of the World Competitiveness Project warns that market opening will tempt many industries to relocate in coun- tries with low-cost labour.
Even more gloomily, he predicts service jobs will soon follow. For most products this is simply not the case". UUule t to. Businesses are slightly more co nfi de n t than they expected to be last spring, stocks of unsold inventories are felling, and companies are Rnatng it easier to borrow money, the Bank of Japan's latest Tankan Quarterly survey of business conditions reveals. Government bond prices strengthened in response. The Tankan index of big manufacturers' business confi- dence improved from -SO in the previous review in May.
Among the main culprits are government officials seeking to add lustre to their perfor- mances as local administrators. Today there are several eco- nomic systems. During the Great Leap Forward of the s agri- cultural production figures were wildly exaggerated to conform with over- heated propaganda about the success of the communist system.
In reality the Great Leap was a disaster and millions are believed to have starved to death as China's communist rulers were pro- claiming the triumph of the system. The Qingdao conference heard that the two worst-offending provinces were Hebei and Shared in the north where 20, cases of falsifying records had been uncovered in In one county in Hebei province the birth rate had been under-stated by half to avoid cen- sure over the failure of local officials tit curb population growth.
Among the most prevalent examples of false reporting in Hebei and Shared was an over statement of per capita income of peasants. This was to avoid revealing the extent of impoverishment and allied to that the failure of local official to improve living standards. In other areas, such ns the wealthier coastal regions, peasant incomes were under-stated tu minimise tax.
It continues the Improve- ment shown in the previous s u r v ey in May. This suggests the recession touched bottom for the survey in the final quarter ctf last year. Bat the balance of compa- nies with surplus employees remains high at IS, compared with 26 in May. Another disap- pointment is that leading com- panies plan to cut capital investment by per this year, only slightly less bad than the 3. Small busi- nesses are even more cautious, forecasting a Manufacturers expect a sharp profits rise this year, led by exports to the recovering economies of the US and Europe and helped by a moderate rise in domestic demand.
But poorly-competi- tive service companies think profits win fell again, squeezed by increased compet it ion. For large manufacturers, that means a forecast They forecast a qnaii rise in sales this year, 03 per emit, reflecting a fell in prices. Large service dompanles believe profits wffl fell 5. Philippine i Consensus near on abortion draft carte! Simon Holber- ton reports from Hang Kong. Mr Hank Townsend. China appears to have balked at a UK request to approve financial agreements between the Hong Kang gov- ernment?
President Fidel Ramos said yesterday, Jose Galang writes from Manila The resignation, from Sep- tember 20, came cm the eve of Mr Ramos's trip to Europe and the public listing today of Petron Corporation, which Mr Lazaro had steered to privati- sation.
He is known to have offered to resign as early as last June, reportedly because of conflicts with other energy officials. Mr Lazaro was given emer- gency powers in to tackle an energy crisis responsible for 10 to 12 hour daily ration- ing. Mr Lazaro will be replaced by Mr Francisco Viray, presi- dent of the state-nm National Power Corporation, which , owns most of the country's I generating capacity.
Many such representatives also believe the religious row over abortion which has domi- nated the meeting threatened to obscure the thrust of the document, which aims to pro- vide a broad-based global pro- gramme for population stabilis- ation into the next century. US assistant undersecretary for global affairs, said progress had also been made in talks with Islamic and Roman Catholic countries in agreeing on lan- guage which had been inter- preted as condoning homosexu- ality and advocating adol- escent and extra-marital sex.
Passage of the contentious abortion text would, however, be only the first round in what most delegates believe will be tough negotiations in the next few days. The Vatican yester- day issued. Vatican delegates were yesterday busy on the floor of the main committee room rallying opposition to the text.
They were yanking out Catholic delegates and getting them in a corner - there was a lot of strong-arm tactics. Syria warns Israel over Golan By Roger Matthews, Mkkfla East Editor Syria warned Israel yesterday that it was a waste of time to talk about a partial withdrawal from the occupied Golan Heights, and said no Middle East peace agreement would last unless it was fair, balanced and mmpiwlimiilw.
Mr Farcrnq al-Shara, Syrian foreign minister, an an official visit to Tendon accused Israel of trying to gam as much as possible from the negotiations. It would be a truce, not a lasting peace," he said. Total Israeli withdrawal from the Golan area had to precede the normalisation of relations, he insisted. Israel has demanded Syria provide evidence of its pledge to establish fall diplomatic relations before it would indi- cate how much of the Golan it was willing to withdraw from.
But Mr Shara warned that the longer it took Israel to pull out of the Golan, the longer would be the delay in establishing normal relations. Unless the West wanted a resumption of the civil war in Beirut there was no question of Lebanon signing a separate deal with Israel. During talks with Mr Doug- las Hurd. Syria was still optimistic about an even- tual agreement, he added. Of course we are glad 28 million of you chose to fly with us this year.
It must mean you like us. With much of this growth coming from factories produc- ing raw materials for industry and goods for investment, the data provided further hints that economic recovery is Increasingly shifting away from consumer spending and towards a more investment driven upturn.
Meanwhile, in a development that suggested that there is lit- tle sign of an inflationary con- sumer boom in sight, industry figures yesterday showed that car sales to private buyers were well below expectkms in August. Mr Eddie George, governor of the Bank of England, and Mr Kenneth Clarke, chancellor of the exchequer, will meet for their regular monthly mone- tary meeting today and are expected to discuss whether base rates should rise to curb inflationary pressures gener- ated by this growth.
But in spite of City assumptions that interest rates will rise this year, the recent benign eco- nomic data has left analysts Increasingly doubtful that rates will change today. The Central Statistical Office yesterday said that manufac- turing output rose by a season- ally adjusted 0. However, the level of overall industrial production, which also includes the utilities and energy sectors, remained unchanged in June compared to July.
The reason for this was that manufacturing growth was offset by a fall in North Sea production due to maintenance work, according to the CSO. The Treasury yesterday wel- comed the data and noted that whereas the consumer sector had previously provided much of the economic growth, the investment and raw materials sectors were now outpacing the consumer industries.
Investment goods output grew 0. The output of the intermediate goods sector, which provides fuel and materials for industry, grew 2. This weaker performance was echoed yesterday by fig- ures that showed that new UK car registrations in August, the most important new car sales month of the year, rose by only 2. The total was well below ear- lier motor industry forecasts for registrations of , to , By contrast registra- tions of new commercial vehicles rose last month by Asthma seen as danger in workplace By Cftve Cookson, Science Editor Asthma is an increasingly serious occupational Illness, with more than 1, workers developing the disease every year in Britain, scientists from the Health and Safety Execu- tive told the British Associa- tion meeting.
Dr Andrew Curran, a senior H5E scientist, said exposure to sensitisers at work was caus- ing asthma In Increasing num- bers of people who had never suffered from the disease in childhood. Asthma results from a com- bination of gwiptir susceptibil- ity and environmental expo- sure. For reasons that scientists do not understand, it is becoming more common among the general population as well as in the workplace.
They fall into two broad categories, according to Dr Curran. One type of sensitiser con- sists of large molecules and organic dust particles. Workers in food processing and fanning are particularly vulnerable to these. The second category of sensi- tiser consists of small rhemirsi molecules. These include iso- cyanates used in spray paints, acid anhydrides used by the electronics industry in curing epoxy resins and times from soldering.
That could pro- duce silicon chips with lines 10 times thinner than those made with today's technology. Swan Hunter on the Tyne, with just one ship docked for work, was once at the centre of the world's busiest shipbuilding community. Mr Joe Dwyer, chief execu- tive of Wimpey, said that the expectations of potential inves- tors of a reasonable rate of return remained higher than that of ministers.
Contractors such as Wimpey have taken the lead in bidding individually and forming con- sortia to tender bids for pri- vately financed roads, rail- ways, hospitals prisons and student accommodation. We need some positive examples if investors are to he persuaded that the rewards win be worth the risk. He expected that the first privately financed schemes to go ahead would be smaller pro- jects, such as prisons and hos- pitals rather than very large road and rail schemes.
Large transport schemes often involved complex plan- ning and political issues which made them difficult to cost and involved higher risk for inves- tors. Mr Dwyer said: "It is clear that government, given the state of the public borrowing requirement, has no choice but to go down this route.
What needs to be sorted out is what rate of return is reasonable for investors to expect" TUC moves towards European style code for rights at work By David Goodhart, Labour Erftor The European Court judgments in June requiring UK employers to consult with employee representatives on redundancies and business transfers, even where they do uot recognise unions, could transform worker consultation in Britain accenting to a TUC legal judgment The judgment from Profes- sor Lord Wedderbum, states that companies will not be able to call up and then dissolve committees for consultation at wilL Such vehicles for consul- tation will require adequate resources and proper indepen- dence from the employer.
The government is currently wrestling with how to imple- ment the European judgment with the least inconvenience to business. A derision is expec- ted within the next few months. The Wedderbum analysis is included in an interim report which was yesterday strongly supported by the TUC, the umbrella organisation for trade unions, at its annual Congress in Blackpool.
The report takes another sig- nificant step towards TUC acceptance of continental European-style rights at work and works councils, but attempts to combine that with an important role for onion organisation. Mr Gordon Horsfield, joint receiver, said there were at this stage no serious bidders; continuing expressions of interest had yet to torn into offers clearly backed by funds.
Price Waterhouse, he said, would now begin looking at offers received for parts of the business, in parallel with any approaches for the whole. It emerged yesterday that the Tyne and Wear Develop- ment - Corporation, North ami South Tyneside and Newcastle councils and private sector interests have formulated a Callback proposal, should no going concern sale be possible, to acquire Swans as a subsea oil and gas exploration and production base. The initia- tive.
Organisation Management and Survey, the engineering consultancy, also confirmed It was interesed in buying Swans as a going concern, and was putting together a financial package. It would hope to find merchant shipbuilding work for the yard from Greece and the US.
I am afraid that we are going to require Interim results. The ASA ruled that there was no proof the baby pictured in the advertisement was a nuclear test victim, and that the figure of 2, deaths had not been substantiated. Greenpeace said it stood by the advertisement Its campaign had been vindicated because , the main complaint on tire link between nuclear power and childhood diseases had not been upheld, the group added.
Within the general level of caution, there was greater interest to technological services from the uoder age group. The poll by Mori for computer company ICL, suggests that whatever the investment fry retail financial restitutions to technological advances, many custo m ers do not see themselves taking advantage of new developments, and a significant minority scarcely use some of the common facilities already available.
For example, three-quarters of those questioned said they would not nse s home b an k i ng service if it was available. One-third of respondents said they had never used a cashpoint machine, while only about half nsed them regularly. By contrast, two-thirds said they regularly visited their bank or building society branch other than to nse a cash dispenser.
The new building will begin manufacturing late next year and be in volume production in Part of the plant's increased output wifi go to other Motorola plants, such as its mobile telephone plant at Easter Inch in West Lothian. Scotland, while the rest of the production will be sold to other manufacturers. The new facility. Motorola says, will enable the plant to produce the most powerful silicon wafers in Europe and among the most powerful in the world. It will add triple layer metal semiconductors to the double layer metal products It already makps and increase tire plant's potential to produce advanced 32 bit microprocessor products.
Staff from the Nuclear Installations Inspect o rate, who are scrutinising safety systems on the Suffolk site, are expected to give the go ahead for fuel loading subject to satisfactory completion of outstanding work. But the complexity of t he commissioning process and delay in ob t a ining authorisation to discharge radioactivity into the environment means the plant U unlikely to be started up before December.
Birch calls for regulator There should be a single regulator for both building societies and banks. Mr Peter Bi rch , chief executive or Abbey National, the home loans and banking group, said. Addressing a seminar organised by the Chartered Institute of Bankers, Mr Birch said that despite the differences in ways of operation he believed it would m?
This might mean the Building Societies Commission becoming part of the supervisory department of the Bank of England. The question of regulation is set to arise as a result of the consultation document which the government is due to publish later this month on the fixture of societies.
Reform urged on damages Changes in the law to make It easier to pay damages In instalments to victims of personal injury are recommended in a report published yesterday by the Law Commission. The commission, which advises the g overnm ent on law reform, says that changes are needed which would allow insurers to boy annuities to make the payments direct to fixe victim tax free. Many victims of accidents prefer the payment of some or all of the damages they are awarded in instalments.
These structured settlements often involve a lamp sum, with payments for the rest of their lives. The commission says that regular payments offer victims greater certainty about their financial fixture than a single lamp sum. They can also be tailored to the victim's needs, with variations in the amounts to reflect changes in need such as education costs and extra care in old age. London bus sell-offs The privatisation of the London bos network took a step forward yesterday with the sale of two more of the larger companies.
This brings the number of bus companies sold to three with a further seven still remaining to be sold. Another two bus companies are expected to be sold off later this month and London Buses expects to complete the sale of all its operations by the end of the year.
The sales are expected to be roughly equally to management tMm« aiyi trade buyers. The purchases by Stagecoach represent its first move into London and will give the Perth-based company a total share of about 1L5 per cent of the UK bus market Stagecoach has already bought companies in Kent Tyneside and Scotland over the past 18 months.
First six months : JNG Group achieved handsome results for the first six mordhs of Net profit in- creased by Net profit per ordinary share went up by An interim dividend of NLG 1. Total assets increased by 2. The Executive Board expects that net profit per share for the whole of will at least equal the level. S Each of these names has been contributing, over the years, to Italy's industrial and economic development.
Each has built an international reputation by remaining true to their consumers and to a common cause: a love of the land and an infinite respect for its fruits. A demon- stration, once again, of how indus- try and agriculture go hand in hand. It all started between and Since then, after endless technological and scientific advan- ces, nothing has changed. We have retained the same devotion to food and the same creativity and dynamism.
It is a true Italian portrait. I fWf,. The pngcct consists of a meter high, double curvature, thin concrete arch dam: a meter long power tnnneL and an underground power station located at the downstream of the dam. TEAS invites scaled bids from eligible bidders who shall offer bids in the currency of US dollar, with the bidding method of percentage reduction based on existing unit prices in the bidding documents, for the Civil Engineering Works - Phase IL 1.
Contract No. I t-A - This group consists of the arch dam, tail race dam, the Intake structure and tunnels of spillway and the section of headrace tu nn el up to the surge tank. The estimated cost of the works is A complete set of bidding documents may be obtained from the address below beginning from September 8. All bids must be delivered to the above office on or before hours, local time on October 17, at the latest. The bids that have not been delivered until this date and any delay in mail shall not be accepted and wiD be returned to the Bidders unopened.
The Bidders may bid for all the above Contracts and separately as welL 6. The Bidders have to provide the requirements completely and within the procedure explained below. Otherwise, Bids which do not comply with any one of the following conditions shall be returned without opening their inner envelopes.
U-C - For the drilling and grouting works a The backgrounds to be submitted must include deep grout curtains of meter or more in depth , total curtain areas not less than , m3 and ex pe ri ence in using tire various grouts and additives for grouting in water or against naming water. Finns shall also report, including supporting documents, for special products used or developed by them as well as certificates for successful completion of important grouting works issued by the Engineer or Clients.
Any firm is eligible to bid for post-qualification both individually and as the partner of a Joint-Venture but the submission or the participation of any firm in more than one bid will not be acceptable and any bids violating of this rule wiQ be rejected. Bids submitted by a Joint-Venture must meet the following requi re me nts: - Each partner of the Joint- Venture must submit the complete documentation required from any firm bidding for individual post-qualification.
The bids of those bidders, who do not comply with the conditio ns required in the bidding documents for the eligibility of the bidder or those bids which are not in conformity with the bidding documents, shall be rejected. The decision by QEAS, in relation to the evaluation, selection and signing of the Contract for the offers received, shall be final 9.
Any delay in mail or offers by telephone, telegram, telex or telefax shall not be accepted. The wove will stir consider- able interest in energy circles since the Pool and British Gas are both in the public eye these days.
He joined the company in as a trainee saipgman in London, after studies at the London School of Economics. He became regional manag er for the Midlands and North, and group director of administra- tion in Pails in In December she helped create the PooL the new whole- sale market for electricity which formed the heart of the privatised industry, becoming chief executive in Back to the UK in , Reynolds took over as director of marketing and services for three years.
Clearly, however, Paris got into his system, as he returned there in to be vice-president, communica- tions, dealing with government and media relations, as well as internal communications. He retired from IBM earlier this year. Given that he enjoys tennis. ABTA currently has 2, main members, though that increases to 7. She is extraordinarily conscientious, and would never leave a job half done.
Last year Sir Tom Cowie, 71, stepped down after 45 years as chairm an of the company he founded and was replaced by Sir James MnrRhmnn l previ- ously director general of Qfgas. The succession was always thought to lie b e tween Jane and Neil Pykett, 46, the direc- tor responsible for Cowie con- tract hire and leasing busi- ness, which tin bulk of group profits. Another possi- ble factor is that Jane is a very hands-on manager, who may have felt ent off by toe layer of divisional wumafwnwii which grew with Cowie.
Finance moves The Colloque Franco- Bri tanniq ue. But the annual meeting of leading industrialists, journal- ists and academics does have some practical uses. It was at one such gathering that a senior member of S. War- burg met Yves Cannae, the president of Cegos, a French consultancy specialising in professional and management training.
He was so Impressed with the year-old Frenchman, who was also executive chair- man of Havas, toe French media group, from to , that he has been hired to advise Warburg on how to develop its business in France Warburg clearly believes that retaining senior figures with good local knowledge and contacts is a winning strategy.
Vincent Walsh has been appointed a director on the UK cash trading desk: he moves from Morgan Stanley. And client-server systems with a unique range of service options, at your disposal day and night - that's what Siemens Nixdorf service logic means.
The decision would b e un wo rkabl e, Yet a review of the UK industrial tribunal system ordered by the Department of Employment is expected to consider reinstatement of employees in the workplace as an alternative to compensation for unfair dismissal. Like the saving of a marriage, it sounds attractive in theory. But in practice, as with rum- consenting partners, it seems fraught with difficulty. While enforced re-instatement is thought to be one of the ideas the government is considering Cor inclu- sion in a consultative document expected to be published later in the autumn, it may have been dis- missed already as unworkable unacceptable to employers.
Nor may business be enamoured with the German approach, which has been scrutinised widely in Britain. In Germany companies must give appropriate justification to works councils composed of elected employee representatives. Although a works council cannot prevent a dismissal. Its opinion is taken into account in any subse- quent proceedings at a labour court - the more powerful German equiv- alent of the UK's tribunals.
Some organisations had been lob- bying for a review for years. When it was announced by Ann. Wldde- combe, the employment minister, in a reply to a parliamentary question in April, she said the move was intended to identify any changes that would help tribunals cope with the rising volume and complexity of cases, to reduce delays, and to con- tain demands on public spending.
Industrial tribunals, the government, had grown too cumber- some and costly. Most of these were unfair dismissal cases, very few of which led to re-ins tatement orders and fewer still to actual re-engagement Under present legislation employers cannot be forced to re-employ some- one if they choose to ignore an order of the tribunal. The Employment Appeal Tribunal the equivalent of the civil Appeal Court, has already laid down detaile d guidance an the MoD cases and cautioned against such high payments.
The underlying need for reform arises from the numerous piecemeal chang es made in the system since tribunals were established in They have gradually acquired more status and power as arbiters of the various employment discrimi- nation laws, to the extent that they now give judgments on 60 types of claim.
Today, because of diminish- ing nninn power and r ep re se n t a tion among many employees, the tribu- nal has become the rfiipf and in some cases the only recourse against unfair treatment in the workplace. The format of industrial tribunals is largely similar across the coun- try- They tend to be held in two or three characterless rooms in an office block.
The proceedings are deliberately informal. With a presid- ing lawyer acting as chairman , the sides are divided into applicants aggrieved employees and respon- dents employers. E ach can be for- mally represented but often choose to forego lawyers because of oo6t; legal aid is not available. The result is that individuals Inexperienced in advocacy tend to stumble through thatr questioning. Often the parties are allowed to lead their witnesses in a way that would not be allowed by a Crown Court judge.
Case backlogs and the length of hearings are lead- ing to too many split hearings, where the be gmnmg and end of a case may take place months apart. Two years ago full-time tribunal chairmen were given powers in cer- tain circumstances to sit alone, but they appear to be reluctant to dis- pense with their panel of two lay people. JaCks is among a growing lobby who believe that the government- funded Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service should have a greater involvement in cases.
Cur- rently, it is available for consulta- tion, but some believe that if its powers were extended to those of mediation or arbitration it could prove a more efficient filtering pro- cess. One fear about the consultative document among organisations that have been urging reform is that the government's prime concern is cost, and that its recommendations may dilute the powers of tribunals.
Peter Martin, legal officer at the Engi- neering Employers' Federation, says: T fear the document may be too narrowly focused when what we want is a broader review. It portrayed a disastrous series of ariscommniri cations between a male college professor and a female student which finally destroyed the professor's career. In a disturbing example of life mimicking art, a male college professor at the University of New Hampshire is now on indefinite Suspension without pay following a sequence of events remarkably like those portrayed to Mamet's play.
Donald Siva. In one of Us lectures, be compared an aspect of the creative process to sex. The shnile was based on the to and fro quality of the movement and the sense of fulfilment that came at the end. Was this aD there was to it? Apparently, yes. In subsequent enquiries it was reported that some female students felt the professor stood too close to them Definitions of what constitutes sexual harassment have profound implications on certain wraiAms, hg t was no definition of how dose was too close.
The professor was suspended without pay for a year, during which time he was req ui red to undergo psychotherapy — at Ids own expense - to correct his supposedly deviant tendencies. He chose instead to bring legal action against the university, demanding reinstatement to the faculty, compensation far lost From sexual simile to sexual crime y Stuart Bentley on the dangers of a politically correct definition inc o m e and undisclosed damages.
Both positions have merit and are defended passionately: an unlikely basis for rational dialogue. We certainly have. As an A me rican academic, I feel a persona] interest in the SDva case, but its ramifications extend far beyond the confines of American acadenria. While such a prospect may be interesting as a dramatic premise, does it have any basis in reality?
In the light of events at the University of New Hampshire, 1 am less complacent than I was. This is especially true with female students, to whose company 1 now feel a level of personal vulnerability more appropriate to a minefield than a classro om. This is not paranoia. This censure carries the same stigma as a conviction for indecent assault The question of stigma is crucial to this debate.
What is important in the Silva case is not what be was accused of but what be was not accused of. There was no suggestion, for example, of improved grades in exchange for sexual favours. Surely not on the campus of a modern university, where ideas are expressed freely - sometimes even offensively - and established opinions are open to constant challenge.
It is now up to the courts to decide. Such optimism may soon be out of data Stuart Bentley is professor of pathology at the University af North Carolina Medical School Keep your head organized. Bensons, LetrassU- Wa Hava employees lo 25 ernanes. Oar broom last year was miffloa Poends.
BOX Can a monetary value be put ou them, or are they priceless? As pressures for conservation of natural resources mount worldwide, planners and policy-makers are increasingly confronted with such questions. The result is that economic valuation of natural resources and environmental accounting are achieving greater prominence. International conservation agencies, among them the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Commission on Environment and Development, have endorsed the objectives of resource valuation and environmental accounting.
The economies of many developing countries are especially resource-dependent - oil-exporting countries, for example - and thus have an interest in determining the value of their inventories, or reserves. Recently the UN Statistical Office published guidelines for environmental accounting; this is likely to help developing countries incorporate the value or resources into national accounts. Thus, the output of products such as oil are overestimated, as there will come a time when the oil runs out and income will cease.
Such natural resources have neither been considered productive capital nor been subject to depreciation. Just as a lumberman loses capacity to produce timber if he cuts trees without reforesting, an economy's productive capacity diminishes with the degradation of biological resources. The World Resources Institute argues that if natural resources, like other assets, are diminishing they should be subject to depredation.
They result in a deceptive measure of economic growth. A country exporting large amounts of timber, for example, may record considerable growth, as reflected in gross domestic product But if economic figures do not reflect a decrease in the inventory of natural resources - its forests - and a reduction of ftatare productive capacity, such growth is overstated and unsustainable.
In practice, purely a financial assessment of profitability. Misleading income measurements create the illusion that growth was created without cost to the environment, says Omar Noman, senior research economist at Oxford University. An indicator of economic growth is needed that is adjusted for environmental costs. It is calculated by subtracting the cost of degradation from grass domestic product Case studies of resource degradation have shown that the market often fails to reflect the social and economic cost of environmental degradation.
For example, although natural stocks of fish worldwide are dwindling, fish prices are not rising enough to inhibit consumption to a sustainable level. A number of methodologies to value natural or biological resources have been proposed. The simplest approach is to assess the market value of commercially harvested products, such as timber or medicinal plants.
It calculates the value at current prices while taking into account unconventional uses such as eco-tourism. But this approach does not consider the value of products that do not pass through a market For an Indian trite, firewood, game meat and fish are products that are not marketed, so have no market value. Even more elusive is the attempt to assess indirect values of ecosystems.
So far sncfa valuation techniques have been applied largely to limited geographical regions or specific resources within an economy. Environmental impacts were assessed in agriculture, forestry, mining and energy sectors. The environmentally adjusted net domestic product EDP was calculated in two stages.
The economic depletion of natural resources was calculated; then the degradation of environmental quality and of non-marketed environmental services was assessed. Total EDP equalled 90 to 97 per cent of net domestic product Ultimately, economic valuation of natural resources does not prevent their unsustainable use. However, it identifies and determines the cost of unsustainable economic growth. It is a Anther step In providing economic indicators that reflect the state of the environment A once defunct tannery in Laos, south-east Asia, has won Us first orders by sell- ing itself to western leather buyers as an environmen- tally friendly operation.
While much industry along the Mekong River is still pumping out effluent and dumping waste, the Simon Lao factory is capitalising on greater environmental awareness among western consumers. The plant never opened for business because there was no further funding once the aid programme ceased. But commercial production began as soon as the tannery was priva- tised last year, and sales are now up to Bt2.
It is now hailed as one of the most environmentally-friendly tan- neries in south-east Asia. And we are in the process of adapting our furniture - to give it a new look - to further fit their production. Simon identified that if it could get a tannery that was dean at the start, and then make it cleaner and greener, surely Ikea would be inter- ested in that Mind you, it is a gam- ble - it's not a deal with Ikea - that is part of the marketing strategy of Simon.
In fret, we could probably Increase production capacity by times and the syst e m would still be able to cope. Imported from Europe, which chemically removes dangerous chemicals from the water used in the tanning pro- cess. They are doing one very important thing right separating chromium- containing waste water from the other waste water streams and removing the chromium by precipi- tation. The resulting sludge is disposed of in drying beds on the plant site.
Inheritage from the UNDP days, the tannery is equipped with a chrome recycling system, which could elim- inate the need for a more suitable site for end-disposal of the chrome- filled sludge. But the system has never been fully operational.
It would require further investment to open and Renaudin is not convinced that using recycled chrome would have no effect on the quality of the leather. Renaudin's gamble, as he puts it, appears to be paying off so far. The shavings, which contain chromium , are produced when the hide is shaved to produce a uniform thickness. Simon Lao will introduce a two-step tanning process. The shav- ing of the hides will in future be done in a pre-tanning stage called wet white, before the usual chrome- tanning process.
Local villagers, for Instance, have to tread with extreme care to avoid hurting themselves when struggling through heaps of broken bottles, rusty bottle caps and copious amounts of rubbish and effluent Heavy rain flushes much of the waste into the relatively pristine waters of the Mekong.
Of course any week that contained the pilot for Chris Tar- rant's game show cam that really be the right phrase? The Opposite Sw would be pretty bad. Such solecisms should have served as a warning. Sure enough women were tgriwert to object to men leaving the lava- tory seat up, and men to complain about the time women took in pre- paring to go out. Goodness knows how the BBC justifies spending our licence fees on such trash. Nor was it just that There have been dust bin loads of repeats and a poor response from news a nd cur- rent affairs programmes to the ces- sation of violence by Irish republi- can terrorists.
Having believed in violence fra: 25 years, why had the terrorists changed their minds? Not only did nobody seem to have the faintest idea, nobody cm television seemed wfDzng to ask. At other times of the year when there is so much more to distract the attention you might be able to get away with showing a ragbag collection of episodes from aodtmt ATV series, pretending you were serving a demand for retro televi- sion. However, there is an impor- tant difference.
Some of his series - The Muppet Show for instance, and The Prisoner - were unusual and well worth reviving. Moreover it was fascinating to see the episode of Danger Man in which Patrick McGoohan played a shadowy agent, sent abroad to a mysterious self- sufficient village where the mun- dane was overlaid with a powerful sense of sinister totalitarianism, since this was so clearly the mod el for The Prisoner in which McGoo- han played the title role and alan produced.
They looked like PoJy- fflla, shoved in to CD gaping sum- mertime cracks. Is this all cause or effect? Are these heaps of repeats and ghastly pilots pushed at us in August because everybody who can afford to has left for Tuscany or, for a touch of real class, Umbria or do all those people shoot off to Italy because August is a dead month, not least on television?
Con- cerned with a British Army unit in Northern Ireland in Wood, a one-time regular soldier, seems to be simultaneously fascinated, impressed and appalled by profes- sional soldiers and soldiering. Like those. A Breed Of Heroes is concerned with the paradoxes of military behaviour; obedience »nri rebellion, valour and stupidity, bru- tality and compassion. The central character, young Lt Thoroughgood, is not the most memorable.
The main mistakp with this drama is to assume it is about Ireland: it is about the military mind. The opening episode made the point that the difference between man and other anima ls is not tool use totters swim on their backs, holding flat stones on their chests to use as anvils for smashing open mussel shells but the symbolism which is built into so many of man's tools, even when they are as seemingly utilitarian as, say, a gun.
Tonight brings the first episodes in BBCl's new drama series about dustmen. Give the broadcasters a week or so and they will be lobbing new pro- grammes at us so fast that none of us will be able to keep up. Politi- cians may have fought their way clear of the old boom-bust cycle but not broadcasters.
This is the way they believe things should be: fam- ine in August and glut in Septem- ber. Synge's celebrated play The Playboy of the Western World - in my case for the second time in IS days - is an astonishment So sim- ple a story, dramatised with such surprising ambiguity. Which is as it should be. The most vital of all the play's layers is its language. There is tiie infectious skill with which Synge malms ordi- nary Irish talk into sicatiii g ly poetic. And it is Christy Mahon, the lying playboy, whose talk is the most infec- tious of all: " From his capacity for poetry we glimpse Ms capacity for courage; and it is he who changes mo6t during the play.
The finest poetry arises from the romance between Christy, the dark starving stranger who arrives from the cold, and Pegeen Mike, the daughter of this house in County Mayo. For this is only County Mayo, where people, ineluding Pegeen, are daft enough to hero-worship Christy for his tale of having killed Ms own father.
Synge has ns fangii at all t hese characters - up to a point The final, beau- tiful twist of Ms play. This file contains bidirectional Unicode text that may be interpreted or compiled differently than what appears below. To review, open the file in an editor that reveals hidden Unicode characters. Learn more about bidirectional Unicode characters Show hidden characters.
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