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Financial cities

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In October, freelancing platform Upwork said in its repor t that about million of U. This trend is fueled by remote work opportunities. Despite the work-from-home trend, freelancers and independent contractors would still prefer to be in a vicinity where they have business opportunities, high-speed internet, decent healthcare and entertainment opportunities.

A financial center refers to a strategically important place that has a massive concentration of financial institutions, public and private banks, hedge funds, trading and commerce organizations headquarters. They also have an efficient internet and transportation infrastructure, un-interrupted means of communication, and a transparent regulatory authority backed by a stable political regime.

Currently, there are thousands of financial centers throughout the world. Many analytics agencies and financial institutions such as IMF, the World Bank, United Nation and Economist Intelligence Unit rank the financial competitiveness of these centers on a regular basis by comparing several factors. However, our methodology would be based on the most common denominators that are well understood by a broad section of the society whether they are affiliated with the financial sector or not.

To put it simply, market capitalization refers to the total value in terms of monetary figures of a publicly-traded company. Global financial centers index GFCI is a popular ranking system that is jointly published by British and Chinese think tanks since It is a famous ranking system for top financial centers as it indexes locations based on data from over 29, financial centers' assessments and contains hundreds of indices used by organizations such as the Organization of Economic Coordination and Development OECD , World Bank, and Economist Intelligence Unit.

Boston is the home to famous universities and research institutions, Boston has become an epicenter for the American technological revolution in fields ranging from law, medicine, engineering, and business due to institutions such as Harvard, MIT and Boston University. Boston also had a very important role in the American revolution. Boston is also a hub of national and international financial services. Boston is a global leader in innovation and entrepreneurship which can be attributed to the fact that many venture capitals have offices in the city.

It is an important city hosting many financial and multi-lateral institutions. Geneva has the honor of hosting the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is a major hub of financial and banking institutes.

The city scores are high on the employment rate index. Luxembourg is a tiny landlocked country located in central Europe bordering Germany, France, and Belgium. Its namesake capital is one of the key centers of the world both in terms of financial and political importance. It is one of the wealthiest cities in Europe. Luxembourg is ranked as the 2 nd safest tax haven in the world.

LA's robust economy is driven by several industries which include international trade, entertainment, aerospace technology and tourism. Zurich is one of the most advanced cities in the world with a strong focus on education, political stability, and tier-one infrastructure.

Swiss stock exchange, which is based in Zurich, is one of the largest in the world based on market capitalization. Zurich is also the largest gold-trading center in the world. No wonder why a third Chinese city is included in this list.

The Guardian dubbed Shenzhen as the Silicon Valley of China owing to the rapid technological research and development. Its progress and prosperity are due to foreign direct investment FDI following more liberal economic policies. It hosts the seventh-highest number of billionaires according to Forbes as well as many Chinese tech giants such as Huawei, Tencent, ZTE, and many financial institutions such as China Merchant bank.

Shenzhen stock exchange is the seventh-largest in the world in terms of market capitalization. There are many investment and venture capital firms that are associated with several startups in San Francisco. Beijing is home to several billionaires, major companies and finance hubs. Singapore has emerged as a strong economic and financial center thanks to the visionary leadership of its founding prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, also known as LKY.

Singapore is a multi-cultural and technologically advanced country. Its internet and transportation infrastructure often rank as some of the best in the world. Singapore ranks 7th in the GFCI rating whereas its stock exchange is one of the best- performers in the world with listings. Warren Buffett's Top 10 Stock Picks.

Disclosure: None. Fight back against inflation. This is how Dalio does it. Bloomberg -- Bill Gates has a short position against Tesla Inc. Stop investing in mediocre businesses. Buy the best, instead. The latest from the Stade de France. The Dow Jones rallied amid encouraging inflation data. London and New York have interchangeably held the top position due to the high quality of mergers, investment opportunities and high credit rating of their stocks listed companies.

The growth of the economy in the Asian continent has given rise to Hong Kong, Singapore, and Shanghai. Low taxation on manufacturers has made Asia a major producer and exporter of fast-moving goods as well as electronics and automobiles. Fund management and competitive stock share trading plus top-notch IPOs have attracted blue-chip investors.

The growth rate was mainly attributed to the mass production of various machinery, petroleum products, industrial chemicals, and metals. At position six with points is Tokyo, followed closely by Toronto with , and Zurich at Toronto, a Canadian city, is a hub for commerce and industries, tourism, and education. Zurich is a financial and economic heavyweight in Switzerland due to its highly developed industries and large stock market exchange.

Other important financial cities include Bejing and Frankfurt. Beijing, the capital of China as well as one of its largest cities , makes the major policy decisions in the country. Frankfurt is a major financial center in the European Union.

The major indicators of a high performing city are economic prowess, financial strength, and the share trading index. Others are human resource expertise and availability of skilled professionals.

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Ntgn ipo New York: Routledge. Its proximity to other countries in the region has also worked in its favor. Despite all the attention that renewable energy companies get, having operations in the renewable energy space alone does not make a stock a buy. Economic history. Retrieved 16 December Accessed May 28, Its namesake capital is one of the key centers of the world both in terms of financial and political importance.
Financial cities 743

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MIT Press. Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 5 June ; Oxford Economics 20 January Archived from the original on 27 April Bloomberg L. Retrieved 22 December The New York Times Magazine. September Retrieved 20 May Retrieved 9 October Financial Times. London Bullion Market Association. May Retrieved 9 October ; "London Metal Exchange".

The London Metal Exchange. April Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 2 March Financial News. Retrieved 5 April Princeton University Press. Amsterdam Business. Archived from the original PDF on 5 July The Guardian. Dutch News NL. The Irish Times. Irish Independent. Finance Dublin. IFSC Ireland. The Wall Street Journal. China Daily. Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier. Investment Europe. The Independent. Retrieved 21 August Finanzplatz Zurich. Archived from the original on 8 May Zurich Banking Association.

Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Canton of Zurich. Cass Business School. Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 11 July Kaminsky September Frankfurt as a financial centre : from medieval trade fair to European banking centre. Archived from the original PDF on 18 August Making Competitive Cities.

Retrieved 16 April The Korea Society. The New York Times: Magazine. China Spectator. The Sydney Morning Herald. Invest Toronto. Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. Ministry of Finance, Government of India. The Economic Times. World Scientific. Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 1 February Translated by Jacqueline Collier.

Cambridge University Press, , p. Civil Service College of Singapore ". Civil Service College Singapore cscollege. Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 26 February As Wu Wei Neng notes: "17th century Amsterdam was the world's first modern financial centre — the city hall, Wisselbank, Beurs stock exchange , Korenbeurs commodities exchange , major insurance, brokerage and trading companies were located within a few blocks of each other, along with coffee houses which served as informal trading floors and exchanges that facilitated deal-making.

Financial innovations such as maritime insurance, retirement pensions, annuities, futures and options, transnational securities listings, mutual funds and modern investment banking had their genesis in 17th and 18th century Amsterdam. The Journal of Economic History. S2CID Global Financial Data. Retrieved 14 May Eric Michael Wilson : "The defining characteristics of the modern corporation, all of which emerged during the Dutch cycle , include: limited liability for investors, free transferability of investor interests, legal personality and centralised management.

Although some of these characteristics were present to a certain extent in the fourteenth-century Genoese societas comperarum of the first cycle , the first wholly cognisable modern limited liability public company was the VOC. London Review of Books.

Murray Sayle : "The Netherlands United East Indies Company Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC , founded in , was the world's first multinational, joint-stock, limited liability corporation — as well as its first government-backed trading cartel. Our own East India Company , founded in , remained a coffee-house clique until , when it, too, began selling shares, not in individual voyages, but in the Company itself, by which time its Dutch rival was by far the biggest commercial enterprise the world had known.

Retrieved 18 March Business Insider. Bloomsbury Press, , pp. Lowy Institute. Retrieved 28 May The potential of repositioning the financial 'meta-economy,'. Futures 5— As Catherine Macaulay notes, " The EIC's bond format, used successfully for over 50 years, has been criticised for preventing capital accumulation as bonds were liquidated quickly after each voyage and a new company effectively established for the next expedition. The evolution of company bonds, adapting arrangements to suit new goals, was cut short when the EIC adopted the VOC share model in Retrieved 21 January The potential of repositioning the financial 'meta-economy'".

Futures , Volume 68, April , p. Boettke and Christopher J. Edward P. Curott: "Business ventures with multiple shareholders became popular with commenda contracts in medieval Italy Greif, , p. Yet the title of the world's first stock market deservedly goes to that of seventeenth-century Amsterdam, where an active secondary market in company shares emerged.

Other companies existed, but they were not as large and constituted a small portion of the stock market Israel [] , —; Dehing and 't Hart , 54; dela Vega [] , Translated from the Dutch by Lynne Richards. Retrieved 13 March Selected and translated by Hermann Kellenbenz. Lexington Books, , p. Domestic Coinage and the Bank of Amsterdam.

How Amsterdam Got Fiat Money. Geert Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, chapter 1, pp. Many of the financial products or instruments that we see today emerged during a relatively short period. In particular, merchants and bankers developed what we would today call securitization. Mutual funds and various other forms of structured finance that still exist today emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries in Holland.

As John Steele Gordon noted, "Although many of the basic concepts had first appeared in Italy during the Renaissance, the Dutch, especially the citizens of the city of Amsterdam, were the real innovators. They transformed banking, stock exchanges, credit, insurance, and limited-liability corporations into a coherent financial and commercial system. First Things firstthings. Retrieved 11 November Goldman noted, "Western societies developed the institutions that support entrepreneurship only through a long and fitful process of trial and error.

Stock and commodity exchanges, investment banks , mutual funds , deposit banking, securitization, and other markets have their roots in the Dutch innovations of the seventeenth century but reached maturity, in many cases, only during the past quarter of a century. Newsweek Magazine newsweek. Retrieved 28 January Walter Russell Mead : "[ From the Netherlands, what the English called "Dutch finance" traveled over the English Channel, as the English borrowed Dutch ideas to build a stock market, promote global trade and establish the Bank of England Authority control.

Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Categories : International finance Financial districts Offshore finance Foreign exchange market. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: missing periodical CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list CS1 errors: generic name All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Use dmy dates from February Use British English from September Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with GND identifiers Articles with HDS identifiers.

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Economic history Private equity and venture capital Recession Stock market bubble Stock market crash Accounting scandals. Business and Economics portal Money portal. New York City. Hong Kong. Los Angeles. San Francisco. Warren Buffett's Top 10 Stock Picks.

Disclosure: None. Fight back against inflation. This is how Dalio does it. Bloomberg -- Bill Gates has a short position against Tesla Inc. Stop investing in mediocre businesses. Buy the best, instead. The latest from the Stade de France. The Dow Jones rallied amid encouraging inflation data. Apple stock surged. The stock market pulled back from the brink of a bear market as rate-hike expectations eased, at least for now.

Here's what it will take to signal a bottom. Giving too much money to these giants? Then start collecting rent from them. There's no changing their mind. Despite all the attention that renewable energy companies get, having operations in the renewable energy space alone does not make a stock a buy. In fact, several renewable energy companies are struggling just to stay profitable. Let's discuss two renewable energy stocks that look attractive right now, and one that's best avoided.

Markets are shaky. Don't make the same mistake as Zillow when you try to price a home. Many Americans are surprised to see they have not prepared as well as they had hoped for retirement when they finally get ready to call it quits. When looking for the best artificial intelligence stocks to buy, identify companies using AI technology to improve products or gain a strategic edge, such as Google, Microsoft and Nvidia.

Stocks have been inching back in recent days from the brink of bear market territory. It may be time to scoop up shares at steep discounts. Here's what a fundamental and technical analysis says about Google stock. But cloud computing growth is key. The top-ranked companies on dividend payout ratios outperformed those stocks with less robust buyback activity— Dow 30 33, Nasdaq 12, Russell 1, Crude Oil Gold 1, Silver CMC Crypto FTSE 7, Nikkei 26, Read full article.

More content below. Muhammad Arqam. In this article:. Is Location Important For Businesses? Story continues. Recommended Stories. PA Media: Sport. Yahoo Finance. Investor's Business Daily. Motley Fool.

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TOP 10 RICHEST CITIES In The World 2021

The World's Leading Financial Cities · What Makes a City a Financial Hub? · London · Singapore · Zurich · New York City · Hong Kong · Chicago · Tokyo. The City of London (the "Square Mile") is one of the oldest financial centres. London is ranked as one of the largest International. Leading financial centers globally as of March ; New York, ; London, ; Hong Kong, ; Shanghai,