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Financial drain

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Soviet involvement in the war was deeply unpopular in the USSR, being fought largely by conscripts among whom there were many casualties, but it ended not so much because of popular discontent but because the military and financial drain on the USSR was too great to be continued. A drain is something where water can flow away, never to be recovered again.

In this context, it is used as a quite common metaphor: the USSR simply had to put too much money into the war, which they would never see again. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. What does 'financial drain' mean?

Ask Question. Asked 6 years, 3 months ago. Modified 6 years, 3 months ago. Viewed 5k times. What does ' financial drain ' mean? Improve this question. Ice Girl Ice Girl 4, 23 23 gold badges 44 44 silver badges 65 65 bronze badges. According to economist Michael Clemens , it has not been shown that restrictions on high-skill emigration reduce shortages in the countries of origin.

Some research suggests that migration both low- and high-skilled is beneficial both to the receiving and exporting countries, [3] [4] [6] [46] while other research suggests detrimental impact on the country of origin.

Remittances increase living standards in the country of origin. Remittances are a large share of GDP in many developing countries, [50] [51] and have been shown to increase the wellbeing of receiving families. Return migration can also be a boost to the economy of developing states, as the migrants bring back newly acquired skills, savings and assets. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and The size of these effects increases with the ethnic diversity of the local population, the geographic distance to the origin country, and the ethno-linguistic fractionalization of the origin country.

A study reviewing the literature on migration and economic growth shows that "migrants contribute to the integration of their country into the world market, which can be particularly important for economic growth in developing countries. A survey of the existing literature on emigration finds that a 10 percent emigrant supply shock would increase wages in the sending country by 2—5.

A study in the Journal of Political Economy found that Swedish emigration to the United States during the late 19th and early 20th century strengthened the labour movement and increased left-wing politics and voting trends. Research finds that emigration and low migration barriers has net positive effects on human capital formation and innovation in the sending countries.

One study finds that sending countries benefit indirectly in the long-run on the emigration of skilled workers because those skilled workers are able to innovate more in developed countries, which the sending countries are able to benefit on as a positive externality. A study found that migration opportunities for Filippino nurses led to a net increase in human capital in the Philippines, thus contradicting the "brain drain" thesis.

Research also suggests that emigration, remittances and return migration can have a positive impact on political institutions and democratization in the country of origin. A study finds that the emigration of women in rural China reduces son preference. After Justinian closed the Platonic Academy in CE, according to the historian Agathias, its remaining members sought protection from the Sassanid ruler, Khosrau I , carrying with them precious scrolls of literature, philosophy and, to a lesser degree, science.

After the peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empires in guaranteed their personal security, some members of this group found sanctuary in the Pagan stronghold of Harran , near Edessa. One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplicius , a pupil of Damascius , the last head of the Athenian school.

The students of an academy-in-exile may have survived into the ninth century, long enough to facilitate the medieval revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. After the end of the Catholic reconquest of Spain , the Catholic Monarchs pursued the goal of a religiously homogenous kingdom. Thus, Jews were expelled from the country in As they dominated Spain's financial service industry, their expulsion was instrumental in causing future economic problems, for example the need for foreign bankers such as the Fugger family and others from Genova.

Thus, the conservative aristocracy consolidated its power over these newly acquired territories while contributing to their decline. After this, many Huguenots estimates range from , to 1 million [] fled to surrounding Protestant countries: England , the Netherlands , Switzerland , Norway , Denmark and Prussia —whose Calvinist great elector, Frederick William , welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and under-populated country.

Many went to the Dutch colony at the Cape South Africa , where they were instrumental in establishing a wine industry. Many Huguenots and their descendants prospered. Henri Basnage de Beauval fled France and settled in the Netherlands, where he became an influential writer and historian. Abel Boyer , another noted writer, settled in London and became a tutor to the British royal family. Henry Fourdrinier , the descendant of Huguenot settlers in England, founded the modern paper industry.

Augustin Courtauld fled to England, settling in Essex and established a dynasty that founded the British silk industry. The exodus of Huguenots from France created a brain drain, as Huguenots accounted for a disproportionate number of entrepreneurial , artisan and technical occupations in the country. The loss of this technical expertise was a blow from which the kingdom did not fully recover for many years.

Midth century Eastern European migration was significantly shaped by religious factors. The Jewish minority experienced strong discrimination in the Russian Empire during this period, which reached its maximum in the pogrom waves of the s. During the s, the mass exodus of more than two million Russian Jews began.

Already before, a migration stream of Jewish people started which was characterized by highly skilled individuals. This pronounced selectivity was not caused by economic incentives, but by political persecution. The suppression of the Society of Jesus in Spanish America in caused the Jesuit vineyards in Peru to be auctioned at high prices, but new owners did not have the same expertise as the Jesuits, contributing to a production decline.

Also, after the suppression, the production and importance of yerba mate-producing regions , which had been dominated by Jesuits, began to decline. The plantation system of the Jesuits did prevail, however, and mate continued chiefly to be harvested from wild stand through the 18th century and most of the 19th century. Antisemitic sentiments and laws in Europe through the s and s, culminating in the Holocaust , caused an exodus of intelligentsia.

Notable examples are:. Besides Jews, Nazi persecution extended to liberals and socialists in Germany, further contributing to emigration. In what was later called the "great purge" of , academics were expelled or fled, ending up in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. Following the great purge, the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton took on the role of leading research institution in maths and physics.

The Bauhaus , perhaps the most important arts and design school of the 20th century, was forced to close down during the Nazi regime because of their liberal and socialist leanings, which the Nazis considered degenerate.

Following this abandonment, two of the three pioneers of modern architecture , Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius , left Germany for America while Le Corbusier stayed in France. They introduced the European Modern movement to the American public and fostered the International Style in architecture and design, [ citation needed ] helping to transform design education at American universities and influencing later architects.

Many Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom established successful careers in publishing, medicine, science, psychoanalysis and other occupations. Several were from Budapest, and were instrumental in American scientific progress e. In the last months of and post World War II, both the American and Soviet governments forcibly recruited and transported thousands of former Nazi scientists to the US and USSR respectively to continue their scientific work in those countries.

By , the Soviet Union had issued restrictions making emigration of its citizens to other countries almost impossible. We were afraid the thaw might unleash a flood, which we wouldn't be able to control and which could drown us. How could it drown us? It could have overflowed the banks of the Soviet riverbed and formed a tidal wave which would have washed away all the barriers and retaining walls of our society.

Even after the official closing of the Inner German border in , [] the border between the sectors of East Berlin and West Berlin remained considerably more accessible than the rest of the border because it was administered by all four occupying powers. Human capital flight in Europe fits into two distinct trends. The first is an outflow of highly qualified scientists from Western Europe mostly to the United States. Although the EU recognizes a need for extensive immigration to mitigate the effects of an aging population, [] national populist political parties have gained support in many European countries by calling for stronger laws restricting immigration.

In , over , Europeans emigrated to the United States , , [] Australia 40, , [] Canada 37, [] and New Zealand 30, This is the highest rate of worker emigration since reunification , and was equal to the rate in the aftermath of World War II. The country has lost Central and Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about extensive migration of skilled labourers to Ireland and the United Kingdom following the creation of the Schengen Agreement. Lithuania , for example, has lost about , citizens since , many of them young and well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular.

A similar phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European Union. In the first year of its EU membership, , Poles registered to work in England, joining an estimated , residents of Polish descent. The exodus is likely to continue, however. The rapid but small-scale departure of highly skilled workers from Southeastern Europe has caused concern about those nations developing deeper integration in the European Union. Serbia is one of the top countries that have experienced human capital flight from the fall of communist regime.

In , people started emigrating to Italy and Greece, and then began going farther, to the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. In the last ten years, educated people and professionals have been leaving the country and going to other countries where they feel they can have improved possibilities for better and secure lives. This is a concern for Albania as well, as it is losing its skilled workers and professionals.

A major cause of human capital flight in countries like Moldova and Ukraine is lack of economic opportunities and corruption. The higher economic class in the country, filled with local and Russian oligarchs, has control over the whole economic system. Young, educated people have few economic opportunities unless they have connections to individuals from the higher class.

This encourages them to emigrate and seek for opportunities elsewhere. In the s, many skilled and educated people emigrated from Turkey , including many doctors and engineers. This emigration wave is believed to have been triggered by political instability, including the military coup. In later decades, into the s, many Turkish professionals emigrated, and students studying overseas chose to remain abroad, mainly due to better economic opportunities.

This human capital flight was given national media attention, and in , the government formed a task force to investigate the "brain drain" problem. There are a considerable number of people leaving the United Kingdom for other countries, especially Australia and the United States.

Business industries expressed worries that Brexit poses significant risk of causing brain drain. Countries in Africa have lost a tremendous amount of their educated and skilled populations as a result of emigration to more developed countries, which has harmed the ability of such nations to climb out of poverty. Nigeria , Kenya and Ethiopia are believed to be the most affected.

I dream of the day when these, the African mathematicians and computer specialists in Washington and New York, the African physicists, engineers, doctors, business managers and economists, will return from London and Manchester and Paris and Brussels to add to the African pool of brain power, to enquire into and find solutions to Africa's problems and challenges, to open the African door to the world of knowledge, to elevate Africa's place within the universe of research the information of new knowledge, education and information.

In response to growing debate over the human capital flight of healthcare professionals , especially from lower-income countries to some higher-income countries, in the World Health Organization adopted the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel , a policy framework for all countries for the ethical international recruitment of doctors, nurses and other health professionals.

African human capital flight has begun to reverse itself due to rapid growth and development in many African nations, and the emergence of an African middle class. Between and , six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies were in Africa, and between and , Africa's economic growth was expected to outpace that of Asia. This, together with increased development, introduction of technologies such as faster internet access and mobile phones, a better-educated population, and the environment for business driven by new tech start-up companies, has resulted in many expatriates from Africa returning to their home countries, and more Africans staying at home to work.

The trend for young doctors and nurses to seek higher salaries and better working conditions, mainly in higher-income countries of the West, is having serious impacts on the health care sector in Ghana. Ghana currently has about 3, doctors—one for every 6, inhabitants. This compares with one doctor per people in the United States.

Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing human capital flight in the past 20 years, since the end of apartheid. More recently, in a case of reverse brain drain a net , highly skilled South Africans returned to South Africa from foreign work assignments over a five-year period from to This was catalysed by the global financial crisis of —08 and perceptions of a higher quality of life in South Africa relative to the countries to which they had first emigrated.

During the Iraq War , especially during the early years, the lack of basic services and security fed an outflow of professionals from Iraq that began under Saddam Hussein , under whose rule four million Iraqis are believed to have left the country. Israel has experienced varying levels of emigration throughout its history, with the majority of Israeli expatriates moving to the United States. Currently, some , native-born Israelis including , Israeli Jews are estimated to be living abroad, while the number of immigrants to Israel who later left is unclear.

Many Israelis with degrees in scientific or engineering fields have emigrated abroad, largely due to lack of job opportunities. From Israel's establishment in May to December , about , doctors and academics left Israel. In addition, the majority of Israelis who emigrate eventually return after extended periods abroad.

In , the Israeli government began a programme to encourage Israelis living abroad to return; since then, the number of returning Israelis has doubled, and in , Israeli expatriates, including academics, researchers, technical professionals and business managers, began returning in record numbers.

The country launched additional programmes to open new opportunities in scientific fields to encourage Israeli scientists and researchers living abroad to return home. These initiatives have since succeeded in luring many Israeli scientists back home. By , the Arab countries were experiencing human capital flight, according to reports from the United Nations and Arab League. The reasons for this included attraction to opportunities in technical and scientific fields in the West and an absence of job opportunities in the Arab world, as well as wars and political turmoil that have plagued many Arab nations.

In , human capital flight was showing signs of reversing, with many young students choosing to stay and more individuals from abroad returning. In particular, many young professionals are becoming entrepreneurs and starting their own businesses rather than going abroad to work for companies in Western countries. This was partially a result of the Arab Spring , after which many Arab countries began viewing science as the driving force for development, and as a result stepped up their science programmes.

Another reason may be the ongoing global recession. The one famous example of brain drain in Indonesia is Indonesian Aerospace , after the Asian financial crisis , many Indonesian Aerospace workers choose to leave their country to find a better career overseas.

As of , there are at least 60 Indonesians graduated from local or overseas universities working at Boeing and Airbus , with half of them holding middle management positions. There have been high rates of human capital flight from Malaysia. Major pull factors have included better career opportunities abroad and compensation, while major push factors included corruption, social inequality, educational opportunities, racial inequality such as the government's Bumiputera affirmative action policies.

As of , Bernama has reported that there are a million talented Malaysians working overseas. In , colonialism in the Philippines ended with the election of Manuel Roxas. However Roxas, having spent his last three years as the secretary of finance and chairman of the National Economic Council and a number of other Filipino companies, was particularly concerned with the country's financial rather than health problems. When the United States relaxed their Immigration Act laws in , labour export emerged as a possible solution for the Philippines.

Since the s and s, the Philippines has been the largest supplier of nurses to the United States, in addition to export labour supplied to the UK and Saudi Arabia. Seeking access through the Exchange Visitors Program EVP sponsored by the US government, workers were encouraged to go abroad to learn more skills and earn higher pay, sending remittance payments back home. Pursuing economic gains through labour migration over infrastructural financing and improvement, the Philippines still faced slow economic growth during the s and s.

Studies show stark wage discrepancies between the Philippines and developed countries such as the US and the UK. This has led Philippine government officials to note that remittances sent home may be seen as more economically valuable than pursuit of local work.

However, scholars have noted that economic disparities in the Philippines have not been eased in the past decades. The Philippines has a migration culture of nursing. A study found that migration opportunities for Filipino nurses led to a net increase in human capital in the Philippines, thus contradicting the "brain drain" thesis. In addition to the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration POEA run by the government that serves as both a source of overseas recruitment agreements and as a marketer of Philippine labour overseas, private nursing schools have acted as migration funnels, expanding enrolment, asserting control over the licensure process, and entering into business agreements with other overseas recruitment agencies.

Discrepancies in wages between Philippine nurses working at home and those working abroad, as noted above, provide clear economic incentives for nurses to leave the country; however, physicians have also been lured into these promises of wealth through the creation of "Second Course" nursing programs.

The New York Times described Barack Obama 's remarks at the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative on conditions which cause brain drain as "slyly" describing Vietnam, with corruption, pollution and poor education. More recent news suggests that a so-called brain gain may be occurring. India has seen massive emigration since the s, most Indian scholars seek to settle abroad for better opportunities. Major push factors include lack of research facilities, low ease of doing business, less opportunities due to lack of skills and innovation.

Every year, , youth are reported to leave Nepal for various reasons. They seek opportunity in its various manifestations—higher living standards, employment, better income, education, an alluring western lifestyle, stability and security. Sri Lanka has lost a significant portion of its intellectuals, mainly due to civil war and the resulting uncertainty that prevailed in the country for the thirty-year period prior to the end of the conflict in In recent years, many expatriates have indicated interest in returning to Sri Lanka, but have been deterred by slow economic growth and political instability.

Both the government and private organizations are making efforts to encourage professionals to return to Sri Lanka and to retain resident intellectuals and professionals. With rapid GDP growth and a higher degree of openness towards the rest of the world, there has been an upsurge in Chinese emigration to Western countries—particularly the United States, Canada and Australia. According to a study, seven out of every ten students who enroll in an overseas university never return to live in their homeland.

Since the beginning of the last century, international students were sent to different countries to learn advanced skills, and they were expected to return to save the nation from invasion and poverty. While most of these students came back to make a living, there were still those who chose to stay abroad.

From the s to the s, China was in a period of widespread upheaval due to political instability. As a result, many Chinese felt upset and disappointed about the situation. The situation did not improve after the gradual liberalization of China during the s; just as many people chose to go abroad, since there were more opportunities overseas.

More social upheavals happened with the Tiananmen Square Massacre —the result of which was an increasing Chinese diaspora. As steady economic growth boosts GDP per capita, more families in China are able to pay for their children to go abroad for study or to live. During the s, 30, New Zealanders were emigrating each year.

An OECD report released in revealed that During the election campaign, the National Party campaigned on the ruling Labour Party's inability to keep New Zealanders at home, with a series of billboards announcing "Wave goodbye to higher taxes, not your loved ones". It was estimated in December that , New Zealanders had left for Australia since the Key government came to power in late New Zealand enjoys immigration of qualified foreigners, potentially leaving a net gain of skills.

Colonial administrators in Canada observed the trend of human capital flight to the United States as early as the s, when it was already clear that a majority of immigrants arriving at Quebec City were en route to destinations in the United States.

Alexander C. Buchanan, government agent at Quebec, argued that prospective emigrants should be offered free land to remain in Canada. The issue of attracting and keeping the right immigrants has sometimes been central to Canada's immigration history. When governments displayed no interest, concerned industrialists formed the Technical Service Council in to combat the brain drain. As a practical means of doing so, the council operated a placement service that was free to graduates.

By , the council had placed over 16, men and women. Between and over 17, engineers and scientists emigrated to the United States. In Canada today, the idea of a brain drain to the United States is occasionally a domestic political issue. At times, brain drain is used as a justification for income tax cuts. During the s, some alleged a brain drain from Canada to the United States, especially in the software , aerospace , health care and entertainment industries, due to the perception of higher wages and lower income taxes in the US.

The evidence suggests that, in the s, Canada did lose some of its homegrown talent to the US. This allowed the country to realize a net brain gain as more professionals entered Canada than left. In the mids, Canada's resilient economy, strong domestic market, high standard of living, and considerable wage growth across a number of sectors, effectively ended the brain drain debate. The United States Census led to a special report on domestic worker migration, with a focus on the movement of young, single, college-educated migrants.

The largest net influx of young, single, college-educated persons was to the San Francisco Bay Area. Many predominantly rural communities in the Appalachia region of the United States have experienced a "brain drain" of young college students migrating to urban areas in and outside of Appalachia for employment, political reasonings and opportunities offered in urban areas that rural communities are currently unable to.

The country as a whole does not experience large-scale human capital flight as compared with other countries, with an emigration rate of only 0. Regarding foreign scholars earning their degrees in the United States and returning to their home country, Danielle Guichard-Ashbrook of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has been quoted as stating "We educate them, but then we don't make it easy for them to stay".

In recent years, many people from younger generations people born from onwards have migrated out of Colombia. Many of them are looking for better employment opportunities elsewhere due to the political turmoil that has been going on in the past decades.

In many cases, the flight of educated people from Colombia does not occur, due to a lack of economic resources from the people and no governmental support in any extracurricular endeavors sports or liberal arts. In , Cuban officials claimed that 31, Cuban doctors were deployed in 61 countries. In , it was reported that 20, were employed in Venezuela in exchange for nearly , barrels 16, m 3 of oil per day. However, in Venezuela and Bolivia , where another 1, doctors work, it is stated that as many as doctors may have fled the missions in the years preceding into countries nearby.

A New Method of Exile" states that the Venezuelan refugee crisis was caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the near future". Many of the Caribbean Islands endure a constant and substantial emigration of qualified workers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals. For other uses, see Brain drain disambiguation. Main article: The Martians scientists. Main article: Human capital flight from Iran. Main article: Yerida.

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Modified 6 years, 3 months ago. Viewed 5k times. What does ' financial drain ' mean? Improve this question. Ice Girl Ice Girl 4, 23 23 gold badges 44 44 silver badges 65 65 bronze badges. And what is "military drain"? See drain " Add a comment. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Improve this answer. On a more personal level, sometimes people will use financial drain to refer to an item that is costly to maintain such as a boat, an extra house, or even an overpriced insurance policy, e.

Featured on Meta. Improvements to site status and incident communication. Announcing the arrival of Valued Associate Dalmarus. Related 2. A survey of the existing literature on emigration finds that a 10 percent emigrant supply shock would increase wages in the sending country by 2—5. A study in the Journal of Political Economy found that Swedish emigration to the United States during the late 19th and early 20th century strengthened the labour movement and increased left-wing politics and voting trends.

Research finds that emigration and low migration barriers has net positive effects on human capital formation and innovation in the sending countries. One study finds that sending countries benefit indirectly in the long-run on the emigration of skilled workers because those skilled workers are able to innovate more in developed countries, which the sending countries are able to benefit on as a positive externality.

A study found that migration opportunities for Filippino nurses led to a net increase in human capital in the Philippines, thus contradicting the "brain drain" thesis. Research also suggests that emigration, remittances and return migration can have a positive impact on political institutions and democratization in the country of origin.

A study finds that the emigration of women in rural China reduces son preference. After Justinian closed the Platonic Academy in CE, according to the historian Agathias, its remaining members sought protection from the Sassanid ruler, Khosrau I , carrying with them precious scrolls of literature, philosophy and, to a lesser degree, science.

After the peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empires in guaranteed their personal security, some members of this group found sanctuary in the Pagan stronghold of Harran , near Edessa. One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplicius , a pupil of Damascius , the last head of the Athenian school. The students of an academy-in-exile may have survived into the ninth century, long enough to facilitate the medieval revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad.

After the end of the Catholic reconquest of Spain , the Catholic Monarchs pursued the goal of a religiously homogenous kingdom. Thus, Jews were expelled from the country in As they dominated Spain's financial service industry, their expulsion was instrumental in causing future economic problems, for example the need for foreign bankers such as the Fugger family and others from Genova.

Thus, the conservative aristocracy consolidated its power over these newly acquired territories while contributing to their decline. After this, many Huguenots estimates range from , to 1 million [] fled to surrounding Protestant countries: England , the Netherlands , Switzerland , Norway , Denmark and Prussia —whose Calvinist great elector, Frederick William , welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and under-populated country.

Many went to the Dutch colony at the Cape South Africa , where they were instrumental in establishing a wine industry. Many Huguenots and their descendants prospered. Henri Basnage de Beauval fled France and settled in the Netherlands, where he became an influential writer and historian. Abel Boyer , another noted writer, settled in London and became a tutor to the British royal family. Henry Fourdrinier , the descendant of Huguenot settlers in England, founded the modern paper industry.

Augustin Courtauld fled to England, settling in Essex and established a dynasty that founded the British silk industry. The exodus of Huguenots from France created a brain drain, as Huguenots accounted for a disproportionate number of entrepreneurial , artisan and technical occupations in the country.

The loss of this technical expertise was a blow from which the kingdom did not fully recover for many years. Midth century Eastern European migration was significantly shaped by religious factors. The Jewish minority experienced strong discrimination in the Russian Empire during this period, which reached its maximum in the pogrom waves of the s.

During the s, the mass exodus of more than two million Russian Jews began. Already before, a migration stream of Jewish people started which was characterized by highly skilled individuals. This pronounced selectivity was not caused by economic incentives, but by political persecution. The suppression of the Society of Jesus in Spanish America in caused the Jesuit vineyards in Peru to be auctioned at high prices, but new owners did not have the same expertise as the Jesuits, contributing to a production decline.

Also, after the suppression, the production and importance of yerba mate-producing regions , which had been dominated by Jesuits, began to decline. The plantation system of the Jesuits did prevail, however, and mate continued chiefly to be harvested from wild stand through the 18th century and most of the 19th century. Antisemitic sentiments and laws in Europe through the s and s, culminating in the Holocaust , caused an exodus of intelligentsia.

Notable examples are:. Besides Jews, Nazi persecution extended to liberals and socialists in Germany, further contributing to emigration. In what was later called the "great purge" of , academics were expelled or fled, ending up in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.

Following the great purge, the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton took on the role of leading research institution in maths and physics. The Bauhaus , perhaps the most important arts and design school of the 20th century, was forced to close down during the Nazi regime because of their liberal and socialist leanings, which the Nazis considered degenerate. Following this abandonment, two of the three pioneers of modern architecture , Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius , left Germany for America while Le Corbusier stayed in France.

They introduced the European Modern movement to the American public and fostered the International Style in architecture and design, [ citation needed ] helping to transform design education at American universities and influencing later architects. Many Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom established successful careers in publishing, medicine, science, psychoanalysis and other occupations.

Several were from Budapest, and were instrumental in American scientific progress e. In the last months of and post World War II, both the American and Soviet governments forcibly recruited and transported thousands of former Nazi scientists to the US and USSR respectively to continue their scientific work in those countries.

By , the Soviet Union had issued restrictions making emigration of its citizens to other countries almost impossible. We were afraid the thaw might unleash a flood, which we wouldn't be able to control and which could drown us. How could it drown us? It could have overflowed the banks of the Soviet riverbed and formed a tidal wave which would have washed away all the barriers and retaining walls of our society.

Even after the official closing of the Inner German border in , [] the border between the sectors of East Berlin and West Berlin remained considerably more accessible than the rest of the border because it was administered by all four occupying powers.

Human capital flight in Europe fits into two distinct trends. The first is an outflow of highly qualified scientists from Western Europe mostly to the United States. Although the EU recognizes a need for extensive immigration to mitigate the effects of an aging population, [] national populist political parties have gained support in many European countries by calling for stronger laws restricting immigration.

In , over , Europeans emigrated to the United States , , [] Australia 40, , [] Canada 37, [] and New Zealand 30, This is the highest rate of worker emigration since reunification , and was equal to the rate in the aftermath of World War II. The country has lost Central and Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about extensive migration of skilled labourers to Ireland and the United Kingdom following the creation of the Schengen Agreement.

Lithuania , for example, has lost about , citizens since , many of them young and well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular. A similar phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European Union. In the first year of its EU membership, , Poles registered to work in England, joining an estimated , residents of Polish descent.

The exodus is likely to continue, however. The rapid but small-scale departure of highly skilled workers from Southeastern Europe has caused concern about those nations developing deeper integration in the European Union. Serbia is one of the top countries that have experienced human capital flight from the fall of communist regime. In , people started emigrating to Italy and Greece, and then began going farther, to the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. In the last ten years, educated people and professionals have been leaving the country and going to other countries where they feel they can have improved possibilities for better and secure lives.

This is a concern for Albania as well, as it is losing its skilled workers and professionals. A major cause of human capital flight in countries like Moldova and Ukraine is lack of economic opportunities and corruption. The higher economic class in the country, filled with local and Russian oligarchs, has control over the whole economic system.

Young, educated people have few economic opportunities unless they have connections to individuals from the higher class. This encourages them to emigrate and seek for opportunities elsewhere. In the s, many skilled and educated people emigrated from Turkey , including many doctors and engineers.

This emigration wave is believed to have been triggered by political instability, including the military coup. In later decades, into the s, many Turkish professionals emigrated, and students studying overseas chose to remain abroad, mainly due to better economic opportunities. This human capital flight was given national media attention, and in , the government formed a task force to investigate the "brain drain" problem.

There are a considerable number of people leaving the United Kingdom for other countries, especially Australia and the United States. Business industries expressed worries that Brexit poses significant risk of causing brain drain.

Countries in Africa have lost a tremendous amount of their educated and skilled populations as a result of emigration to more developed countries, which has harmed the ability of such nations to climb out of poverty. Nigeria , Kenya and Ethiopia are believed to be the most affected. I dream of the day when these, the African mathematicians and computer specialists in Washington and New York, the African physicists, engineers, doctors, business managers and economists, will return from London and Manchester and Paris and Brussels to add to the African pool of brain power, to enquire into and find solutions to Africa's problems and challenges, to open the African door to the world of knowledge, to elevate Africa's place within the universe of research the information of new knowledge, education and information.

In response to growing debate over the human capital flight of healthcare professionals , especially from lower-income countries to some higher-income countries, in the World Health Organization adopted the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel , a policy framework for all countries for the ethical international recruitment of doctors, nurses and other health professionals.

African human capital flight has begun to reverse itself due to rapid growth and development in many African nations, and the emergence of an African middle class. Between and , six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies were in Africa, and between and , Africa's economic growth was expected to outpace that of Asia. This, together with increased development, introduction of technologies such as faster internet access and mobile phones, a better-educated population, and the environment for business driven by new tech start-up companies, has resulted in many expatriates from Africa returning to their home countries, and more Africans staying at home to work.

The trend for young doctors and nurses to seek higher salaries and better working conditions, mainly in higher-income countries of the West, is having serious impacts on the health care sector in Ghana. Ghana currently has about 3, doctors—one for every 6, inhabitants. This compares with one doctor per people in the United States. Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing human capital flight in the past 20 years, since the end of apartheid. More recently, in a case of reverse brain drain a net , highly skilled South Africans returned to South Africa from foreign work assignments over a five-year period from to This was catalysed by the global financial crisis of —08 and perceptions of a higher quality of life in South Africa relative to the countries to which they had first emigrated.

During the Iraq War , especially during the early years, the lack of basic services and security fed an outflow of professionals from Iraq that began under Saddam Hussein , under whose rule four million Iraqis are believed to have left the country.

Israel has experienced varying levels of emigration throughout its history, with the majority of Israeli expatriates moving to the United States. Currently, some , native-born Israelis including , Israeli Jews are estimated to be living abroad, while the number of immigrants to Israel who later left is unclear. Many Israelis with degrees in scientific or engineering fields have emigrated abroad, largely due to lack of job opportunities.

From Israel's establishment in May to December , about , doctors and academics left Israel. In addition, the majority of Israelis who emigrate eventually return after extended periods abroad. In , the Israeli government began a programme to encourage Israelis living abroad to return; since then, the number of returning Israelis has doubled, and in , Israeli expatriates, including academics, researchers, technical professionals and business managers, began returning in record numbers.

The country launched additional programmes to open new opportunities in scientific fields to encourage Israeli scientists and researchers living abroad to return home. These initiatives have since succeeded in luring many Israeli scientists back home. By , the Arab countries were experiencing human capital flight, according to reports from the United Nations and Arab League. The reasons for this included attraction to opportunities in technical and scientific fields in the West and an absence of job opportunities in the Arab world, as well as wars and political turmoil that have plagued many Arab nations.

In , human capital flight was showing signs of reversing, with many young students choosing to stay and more individuals from abroad returning. In particular, many young professionals are becoming entrepreneurs and starting their own businesses rather than going abroad to work for companies in Western countries. This was partially a result of the Arab Spring , after which many Arab countries began viewing science as the driving force for development, and as a result stepped up their science programmes.

Another reason may be the ongoing global recession. The one famous example of brain drain in Indonesia is Indonesian Aerospace , after the Asian financial crisis , many Indonesian Aerospace workers choose to leave their country to find a better career overseas. As of , there are at least 60 Indonesians graduated from local or overseas universities working at Boeing and Airbus , with half of them holding middle management positions.

There have been high rates of human capital flight from Malaysia. Major pull factors have included better career opportunities abroad and compensation, while major push factors included corruption, social inequality, educational opportunities, racial inequality such as the government's Bumiputera affirmative action policies. As of , Bernama has reported that there are a million talented Malaysians working overseas. In , colonialism in the Philippines ended with the election of Manuel Roxas.

However Roxas, having spent his last three years as the secretary of finance and chairman of the National Economic Council and a number of other Filipino companies, was particularly concerned with the country's financial rather than health problems. When the United States relaxed their Immigration Act laws in , labour export emerged as a possible solution for the Philippines.

Since the s and s, the Philippines has been the largest supplier of nurses to the United States, in addition to export labour supplied to the UK and Saudi Arabia. Seeking access through the Exchange Visitors Program EVP sponsored by the US government, workers were encouraged to go abroad to learn more skills and earn higher pay, sending remittance payments back home. Pursuing economic gains through labour migration over infrastructural financing and improvement, the Philippines still faced slow economic growth during the s and s.

Studies show stark wage discrepancies between the Philippines and developed countries such as the US and the UK. This has led Philippine government officials to note that remittances sent home may be seen as more economically valuable than pursuit of local work. However, scholars have noted that economic disparities in the Philippines have not been eased in the past decades. The Philippines has a migration culture of nursing.

A study found that migration opportunities for Filipino nurses led to a net increase in human capital in the Philippines, thus contradicting the "brain drain" thesis. In addition to the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration POEA run by the government that serves as both a source of overseas recruitment agreements and as a marketer of Philippine labour overseas, private nursing schools have acted as migration funnels, expanding enrolment, asserting control over the licensure process, and entering into business agreements with other overseas recruitment agencies.

Discrepancies in wages between Philippine nurses working at home and those working abroad, as noted above, provide clear economic incentives for nurses to leave the country; however, physicians have also been lured into these promises of wealth through the creation of "Second Course" nursing programs. The New York Times described Barack Obama 's remarks at the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative on conditions which cause brain drain as "slyly" describing Vietnam, with corruption, pollution and poor education.

More recent news suggests that a so-called brain gain may be occurring. India has seen massive emigration since the s, most Indian scholars seek to settle abroad for better opportunities. Major push factors include lack of research facilities, low ease of doing business, less opportunities due to lack of skills and innovation.

Every year, , youth are reported to leave Nepal for various reasons. They seek opportunity in its various manifestations—higher living standards, employment, better income, education, an alluring western lifestyle, stability and security. Sri Lanka has lost a significant portion of its intellectuals, mainly due to civil war and the resulting uncertainty that prevailed in the country for the thirty-year period prior to the end of the conflict in In recent years, many expatriates have indicated interest in returning to Sri Lanka, but have been deterred by slow economic growth and political instability.

Both the government and private organizations are making efforts to encourage professionals to return to Sri Lanka and to retain resident intellectuals and professionals. With rapid GDP growth and a higher degree of openness towards the rest of the world, there has been an upsurge in Chinese emigration to Western countries—particularly the United States, Canada and Australia.

According to a study, seven out of every ten students who enroll in an overseas university never return to live in their homeland. Since the beginning of the last century, international students were sent to different countries to learn advanced skills, and they were expected to return to save the nation from invasion and poverty.

While most of these students came back to make a living, there were still those who chose to stay abroad. From the s to the s, China was in a period of widespread upheaval due to political instability. As a result, many Chinese felt upset and disappointed about the situation. The situation did not improve after the gradual liberalization of China during the s; just as many people chose to go abroad, since there were more opportunities overseas.

More social upheavals happened with the Tiananmen Square Massacre —the result of which was an increasing Chinese diaspora. As steady economic growth boosts GDP per capita, more families in China are able to pay for their children to go abroad for study or to live. During the s, 30, New Zealanders were emigrating each year. An OECD report released in revealed that During the election campaign, the National Party campaigned on the ruling Labour Party's inability to keep New Zealanders at home, with a series of billboards announcing "Wave goodbye to higher taxes, not your loved ones".

It was estimated in December that , New Zealanders had left for Australia since the Key government came to power in late New Zealand enjoys immigration of qualified foreigners, potentially leaving a net gain of skills. Colonial administrators in Canada observed the trend of human capital flight to the United States as early as the s, when it was already clear that a majority of immigrants arriving at Quebec City were en route to destinations in the United States.

Alexander C. Buchanan, government agent at Quebec, argued that prospective emigrants should be offered free land to remain in Canada. The issue of attracting and keeping the right immigrants has sometimes been central to Canada's immigration history. When governments displayed no interest, concerned industrialists formed the Technical Service Council in to combat the brain drain. As a practical means of doing so, the council operated a placement service that was free to graduates.

By , the council had placed over 16, men and women. Between and over 17, engineers and scientists emigrated to the United States. In Canada today, the idea of a brain drain to the United States is occasionally a domestic political issue. At times, brain drain is used as a justification for income tax cuts. During the s, some alleged a brain drain from Canada to the United States, especially in the software , aerospace , health care and entertainment industries, due to the perception of higher wages and lower income taxes in the US.

The evidence suggests that, in the s, Canada did lose some of its homegrown talent to the US. This allowed the country to realize a net brain gain as more professionals entered Canada than left. In the mids, Canada's resilient economy, strong domestic market, high standard of living, and considerable wage growth across a number of sectors, effectively ended the brain drain debate. The United States Census led to a special report on domestic worker migration, with a focus on the movement of young, single, college-educated migrants.

The largest net influx of young, single, college-educated persons was to the San Francisco Bay Area. Many predominantly rural communities in the Appalachia region of the United States have experienced a "brain drain" of young college students migrating to urban areas in and outside of Appalachia for employment, political reasonings and opportunities offered in urban areas that rural communities are currently unable to. The country as a whole does not experience large-scale human capital flight as compared with other countries, with an emigration rate of only 0.

Regarding foreign scholars earning their degrees in the United States and returning to their home country, Danielle Guichard-Ashbrook of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has been quoted as stating "We educate them, but then we don't make it easy for them to stay". In recent years, many people from younger generations people born from onwards have migrated out of Colombia.

Many of them are looking for better employment opportunities elsewhere due to the political turmoil that has been going on in the past decades. In many cases, the flight of educated people from Colombia does not occur, due to a lack of economic resources from the people and no governmental support in any extracurricular endeavors sports or liberal arts. In , Cuban officials claimed that 31, Cuban doctors were deployed in 61 countries.

In , it was reported that 20, were employed in Venezuela in exchange for nearly , barrels 16, m 3 of oil per day. However, in Venezuela and Bolivia , where another 1, doctors work, it is stated that as many as doctors may have fled the missions in the years preceding into countries nearby. A New Method of Exile" states that the Venezuelan refugee crisis was caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the near future".

Many of the Caribbean Islands endure a constant and substantial emigration of qualified workers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals. For other uses, see Brain drain disambiguation. Main article: The Martians scientists. Main article: Human capital flight from Iran. Main article: Yerida. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with Philippines and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Venezuelan refugee crisis. Capitalism Convergence economics Economic results of migration Diaspora Foot voting Care drain Human capital Instructional capital Intelligentsia Knowledge transfer Opposition to immigration.

Foreign Policy In Focus. Institute for Policy Studies. Retrieved 15 June