Insider knowledge. Certified debit memorandum with details of shipment and insurance in duplicate for payment of insurance supporting the payment of insurance premium. Bill or other written evidence supporting the payment in duplicate for payment of various charges incidental to foreign trade other than preceding two items. Mayor of Yokohama No. Property has been ordered to deliver all the property belonging to or in the custody of branch in Japan of the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, Ltd.
Land Residential land 2. Quantity Ministry of Finance Notification No. Ministry of Transportation Notification No. Ministry of Telecommunications Notification No. This Commission held 42nd Arbitration Commission Meeting on February 15, to deliberate the matter and decided to undertake arbitration thereof in accordance with the provision of Art.
The said Commission, however, did not show a mediation plan for it for several reasons and discontinued the mediation: 1. Matters applied for arbitration: Dispute concerning the revision of the wage base to be applied from April onward to the employees of the National Railways. Date of request for arbitration: February 10, 5.
Japan Chemical Industrial Co. The inventory of the said factory fdundation is available at this Branch Bureau for the inspection Of the interested parties. The inventory of the said foundation is available at this Branch Bureau for the inspection of the interested parties. Accordingly, the creditors to this company are requested to report their claims within two months from the day following publication of the first. Failing any claim to be submitted within the said period, it-shall be excluded from the liquidation.
Liquidator : Kazuo Kurihara No. Accordingly, the creditors to this company are requested to report their claims within two months from the day following publication of the first notice. Failing any claim to be submitted within the aforesaid period, it shall be excluded from the liquidation. Accordingly, the creditors to this company who fail to" report their claims within two months from the day of publication of the first notice shall be excluded from the liquidation. Noki Kogyo K.
Liquidator : Takenosuke Nakahara No. Accordingly, the creditors to this company are requested to report their claims within two months from the day of publication of the first notice. Nikko Denki Sangyo K. Accordingly, the creditors to this company are requested to -5 report their claims within two months from the day following publication of the first notice. Failing any claim to be submitted within the aforesaid period, it shall be. Nikka Kdgyo K. Liquidator: Shfnta Chiga No.
Failing any claim, to be submitted within the aforesaid period, it shall be excluded from the li quidation. Accordingly, the creditors to this companyEare requested to report their claims within two months from the day of publication of the first notice. Failing any claim to be submitted within the aforesaid period, it sliall be excluded from the liquidation.
Asahi Keito Boseki K. Accordingly, the creditors to this association are requested to report their claims within two months from the day following publication of the first notice. Taishin Kogyo K. Liquidator : Takashi Kobayashi No. The alteration of names inscribed on shares of stock shall be continued again after the adjournment of the above Extraordinary General Meeting of Stockholders.
Therefore as we would be pressed by many requests for alteration of names inscribed on shares of stock after April 19 and we fear that the return of stock certificates to shareholders may be delayed, we shall accept documents for the alteration of names inscribed on shares of stock even during the above period of suspension. However, previous notice is hereby given that the stock certificates will be kept by the Company for the time being and will be returned to the stockholders as soon as possible after the adjournment of the Extraordinary Central Meeting of Stockholders.
In case of failure to do so within the aforesaid period of time, they shall be disposed of, at the authority of the company : Nippon Hassoden K. Japan Electric Supply Co. Nippon Kangyo Shoken K. Nippon Seiko-sho Tokyo Kosan K. Tokyo Kyuko Dentetsu K.
Tokyo Shibaura Denki K. Chuo Shoken K. Tama Sangyo K. Besides, the filature industry, ceramic industry, and lacquer-work industries are also flourishing. The paper-manufacturing industry has also made great progress. There are at present nearly a hundred cotton spinning factories. The total production of the textile industry amounts to 3 1 0,, yen a year, of which silk cloth, Habutae, and cotton fabrics are the principal. The total annual production of the ceramic industry reaches on an average 1 0,, yen.
Of the branches of domestic commerce, rice and Sake — rice-wine — are the two which are most important and prosperous. At present, there are estabKshed Chambers of Commerce at sixty places. The great centres of the bank- ing business are Tokyo and Osaka, which control in conjunction with Yokohama and Kobe, the commercial transactions of the Empire. Highways, railways, steamship lines for foreign and domestic commerce, postal arrangements, telegraphs, are all provided for. As for highways there are main lines from Tokyo to the national shrine at Ise, to the various prefectural offices, to open ports, to the different divisional headquarters of the army ; prefectural roads connect the prefectureil offices and the military divisional headquarters.
Since that time lines have been yearly extended in various directions, until the total mileage of Japanese railways has amounted to miles, of which only miles are in private hands. In addition to the rciilways of Japan Proper, there are the Korean and South Manchurian railways, which connect vv iLh the Siberian railway, by which travellers may go by a direct route to the great centres of Europe.
During the period of national isolation, , voyages beyond Japanese territoricJ waters were prohibited, a measure which checked the development of water transportation. At the present day, we are not only building large ships in our own dockyards, but our merchant marine are engaged in the business of carrying passengers and freight to Europe, America and Australia.
Steamships to the number of ply between domestic and foreign ports, but in spite of this sixty per cent, of the trade of Japan is still carried in foreign bottoms. The public bodies that assist in the development of marine transportation are the Marine Association, the Seamen's Relief Association, the Life-boat Association, etc.
The government also assists the marme business by the Navigation Encouragement Law and the Ship-building Encouragement Law, or by training seamen at mercantile marine schools. As respects the means of communication there was formerly in Japan a postal organization which facilitated the communication of the people in cities as well as in rural districts.
The modern postal system, however, was established at the time of the Restoration of Meiji, and the postal policy of the nation was further improved. Systems of parcel post, and postal savings banks were then perfected. Japan has also joined the International Postal Union. Lines of tele- graph are extended in all directions. In the whole empire the length of main telegraph line is miles, while the lines extended reach a total of miles. Connections are made with wires to foreign countries.
Telephones have been established in different cities and towns. Wireless telegraphy has also been introduced and is installed and operated by Japanese. Of the taxes, land-tax and Sake-tax are the prin- cipal sources of revenue amounting to over 80,, yen.
The amount was reduced to 10,66,, yen in I The foreign loans were at one time completely redeemed, but in late years foreign loans have agciin been floated. Especially as a result of the Russo-Japanese wai, the amount of foreign loans was suddenly in- creased. In , there were unredeemed loans to the amount of 1,,, yen. There cire eight classes of foreign loans. The local loans at present exceed 1 68,, yen, which is chiefly due to the increase in educational expenditure in recent years.
As for the circulation of currency, there was in 35,,- yen of gold coinage, ,, yen of silver coinage, and ,, yen of paper currency. Foreign trade is carried on at thirty nine open ports, and at nine special open ports Formosa. The total amount of trade in reached 1,,, yen, of which seventy per cent was earned on at the two ports of Yokoh ama and Kobe. The greatest amount of export business is carried on at Yokohama, and the greatest amount of import business is done at Kobe.
The principal goods for ex- portation are raw silk, cotton yarn, silk piece-goods, coal, tea, figured matting, matches, metals, etc. Of the twenty three countries with which commercial treaties are concluded, the United States, China, France, Hongkong, England, Italy, are the principal exporting countries, and England, India, the United States, China, Germany, are the chief Lmporting countries. The emperor of Japan is sacred and inviolable. When the rule of that house became so high-handed as to be unbearable the political power was usurped by military families.
In the time of Yoritomo Minamoto, the Shogunate was established at Kamakura, and the feudal system was inaugurated. After the overthrow of the house of Minamoto the Hojo family were the political rulers of Japan for several generations. At the end of that period the Shogunate was in sore financial straits, which led to much disorder in political affairs. Thereupon, the Emperor Godaigo, calling to his aid loyal warriors from different provinces, overthrew the Shogunate — an event known in Japanese history as the Restoration of the Kembu period.
The political power thus reverted to the imperial family, but the restoration was not destined to endure. Takauji Ashi- kaga rose in rebellion against the imperial court and endeavoured to establish another court under an imperial prince. This led to the condition of affairs known as the " Nan-boku-cho " the Southern and Northern Dynasties. After a series of civil wars the political power again rested in the hands of a military family, — the Ashikaga. The Ash ikaga Shogunate showed symptoms of decline after the lapse of a few generations and the succeeding period was marked by incessant civil war.
Nobunaga Oda, a loyal general, repaired the imperial palace, established court etiquette, and began the work of suppressing national disorder. This task, left unfinished by Nobunaga, was carried on by Hide- yoshi Toyotomi, who tranquillized the country and even extended the national prestige beyond seas.
The Tokugawa family, succeeding to that of Toyotomi, completed the work of organizing the political government under a military regime, and managed the affairs of the nation for two hundred and fifty years, — a period of unbroken peace. The founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate, was lyeyasu Toku- gawa and its organization was perfected at the time of the eighth Sh ogun, Yoshimune. By this time the study of the Dutch language and science had been begun by our scholars and by this means a knowledge of foreign affairs was gradually diffused throughout Japan.
At a later period, several Euro- pecin countries sent envoys requesting the opening of the country to international trade. In the 6th year of the Kaei era the United States government sent Commodore Peny, commanding a naval squadron, with credentials empowering him to seek the establish- ment of friendly intercourse between the United States and Japan.
The Shogunate, wisely discerning the trend of the times, concluded commercial treaties with five foreign countries. In 1 the Emperor Meiji ascended the throne, and soon after this event the Shogun Keiki begged the emperor to consent to the restoration of the political power to the imperial court.
The em- peror acceded to this request and relieved the Shogun of his office. Thus was brought about what is known in Japanese history as the Restoration of the Imperial Government. Since that time the government and the governed have made common cause in seeking knowledge, in adopting the culture of ail ages, in promoting the ad- vancement of the national destiny. In the twenty-second year of Meiji the national constitution was promulgated. Two successful campaigns, — one agciinst China, another agsiinst Russia, — have placed Japan in the rank of first class powers.
At the present time Japan is in alliance with Great Britain and has concluded a friendly understanding with France and Russia. When the great war of broke out among the European powers, Japan, in accor- dance with the terms of the Anglo-Japanese alliance, declared war against Germany. After that time three ancient Kingdoms of Korea, — Shiragi, Kudara and Koma, — began to pay tribute to our Imperial House, and with the tribute the learning of those count- ries was also introduced into Japan.
In the matter of the fine arts, however, there remains no record whatever to show to what degree they had developed. In the 1 3th year of the reign of the umperor Kinmei of the Christian era the imperial court received from Kudara a gift consisting of Buddhist images, Buddhist sutras, etc. After this, priests, temple carpenters, sculptors of Buddhist images, tile-makers, and painters began to make their way from Korea to Japan.
It was at this time that the fine arts, specially connected with Buddhism, gradually began to make their appearance. In when the Empress Suiko ascended the throne, the imperial prince Umayado became regent. He encouraged the propagation of Buddhism, built Buddhist temples, established the national constitution, fixed court etiquette, and compiled the state history, whereby the form of government was for the first time definitely expressed.
At this time communication with Korea became more and more frequent and Koreans resorted to Japan not only to pay tribute to the imperial court but to become subjects of the empire. Moreover this communication with Korea had the further result of opening up direct intercourse with China, which, in its turn, led to further brilliant progress in Japanese civilization.
At that time Chinese civilization was at its zenith, and Japan benefitted greatly through coming into direct contact with it. There we may still look upon remains of the arts of thirteen hundred years ago. In a word, in less than a hundred years after the first introduction of Korean culture and science, foreign civilization had come into close touch Vvith the inmost springs of national life and had been completely incorporated into Japanese civilization, as expressed in architecture, painting and sculpture, with that noble style and smooth harmony peculiar to Japanese fine art.
In the temples of tlie provinces of Yamato, Yamashiro, Settsu and the neighbouring districts there are not a few remains which we must recognise as belonging to that period. The ' East Pagoda ' in the ground of the Yakushiji Temple is a fine piece of architecture which the architects of to-day might study with profit. The art of painting also made considerable progress in that penod : The fresco paintings in the Kondo, — the chapel where the principal image is enshrined, — of the Horyuji Temple and the portrait of the imperial prince Shotoku-taishi, which is one of the imperial treasures said to have been painted by the Korean prince Asa, are most probably remains of that period.
The grandeur of the former and tbe elegance of the latter proclaim them to be masterpieces rarely equcJled. The greatest undertaking of the emperor was the building of a Kokubunji Temple in every province of the empire. The Japanese civilization which hitherto had been seen in its full brilliancy only in the metropolis, and which had been quite slow in making its influence felt in the country districts, now began to expand throughout the whole country. The building of the temples of Kokubunji and the Emperor Shomu's exertions in propagating Buddhism were a means of civilizing the entire country.
In every Kokubunji there was enshrined a gold and copper Vairuciana image of one jo and six shaku — about I 6 feet — high, and the general fitting and decoration were proportionally grand. The undertaking was indeed a gigantic one such as had never been seen before.
Not content with the building of a Koku- bunji Temple in every province the emperor now planned to build a head Temple, Todaiji, in Nara, and to cast a great image of Buddha, — Daibutsu. The Todaiji Temple was thus the head temple of all the Kokubunji in the country, and the great image of Buddha, Daibutsu, represented the aggregate of all the Vairuciana images in the country. Thus it will be seen that the magnificence of the great image, whose height is indeed over 1 6 metres, is not without a profound meaning.
We can imagine how large and magnificent were the chapel, the pagoda, and the temple which belonged to. The motive of the emperor in exerting himself for the propagation of Buddhism was certainly not a selfish wish for his own happiness in a future existence, but his earnest desire for the public peace of the state and for the welfare of the people. He thought, it is evident, that the upgrowth of the Buddhist faith was at once a blessing and profit to the country and the people. In short, it was nothing more than one phase of the imperial policy.
It was but natural that the fine arts in general should also make further progress and display brilliancy, together with the tise of Buddhism. The progress was indeed unprecedented, and con- sequently the art treasures remaining from this period are quite numerous. In carving, there are not a few remains in dried lacquer and clay, besides those executed in wood and in metal. In painting also there must have been no less progress, but unfortunately the works now remaining are very few in number.
One may get an idea of the delicate touch aind graceful colouring of the pictures of this period by examining the Sri-maha-devi image lately discovered at the temple of Yakushiji. Fortunately for us there is a place in Japan where a considerable number of remains of this period are preserved together. The empress Komyo dedicated, after the demise of the emperor Shcm.
These imperial relics were well preserved through successive dynasties, and we are allowed the honour of inspecting them. A folding screen, on which there is painted a portrait of a lady, a lute with five strings, a banner with Buddhist images painted on it, a black-ink picture on hemp cloth, etc.
It is probable that some of them were imported from Korea and China. In these countries there are not any relics of the period corresponding to this. The place where different relics of such remote ages are preserved together is rightly to be called the most unique art treasury in the world.
The wise emperor Kwanmu, when he ascended the throne in 78 1 , removed the capital to the province of Yamashiro, gave fresh impetus to the public feeling, re- organized the military system, readjusted local administration, and thus greatly improved and manifested the imperial authority. The period of about four hundred years, from this time on, is called the Heian-cho period. At the beginning of this period Buddhist priests went over to China with a view to stud3ang Buddhism, and when they returned they introduced Chinese civilization afresh, which was the cause of renewed progress in the art of Buddhist painting.
Consequently, the custom of sending govern- ment students to China was at last stopped and the policy was adapted of studymg independently at home. As our communication with China became less frequent, the study of Chinese literature, and the composing of Chinese essays and poems, gradually declined, and Japanese writing and poetry correspondingly developed.
In the fine arts, also, the general trend was toward independence. The most noted of the painters was Kose-no-Kanaoka, who flourished towards the end of the ninth century. The pictures of Kanaoka are realistic, after the fashion of Kawanari Died in From this time on- wards, not only religious pictures, but also scenery, flowers and plants, portraits, etc. From the time of Kintada and Kinmochi, the descendants of Kanaoka, the heads of the Kose family were successively appointed chiefs of the bureau of paintings which was established at the imperial palace, and was indeed the center of national art.
Particularly, about the middle of the eleventh century, there appeared a master of painting Tamenari, who painted on the leaf of the door and on the panel walls of the Ho-o-do — The Phoenix Temple — , at Uji.
These are preserved in good condition. But, towards the end of this period, the art of the Kose family declined never to rise, and their place was taken at the end of eleventh century, by Motomitsu Fujiwara, who was the founder of the so-called Tosa school. In the middle of the twelfth century, there appeared Taka- yoshi Fujiwara, who was another master of the art.
He painted pictures illustrative of the Genji-monogatari, the most noted of his works, beside various religious pictures. What is to be remembered is that the painters of the Kose school were those who painted after the style of the Tang dynasty of China. His paintings greatly differed from these in the latter stage of the Fujiwara period in being full of high spirit. He was truly a reformer in the painting of religious pictures.
At about the same time, there flourished Toba-Sojo, — Bishop Toba, — who was very skilful in painting comic pictures. Three roll-pictures now preserved in the Kozanji Temple of Togao are said to be his work. His style of painting was spirited and exhilarating, and was totally free from the sluggishness of style of the preceding ages.
The paintings that made special progress, in the latter half of this period, were screen-pictures and roll-pictures. Towards the end of this period, such pictures as Ashide-Utae, — verses painted to represent leaves of reeds — , Ye-awase pictures, — pictures painted on rolls to be used in a game m which two parties compared pictures cind competed to decide which party's rolls were superior — , and fan pictures, etc.
There was in this period a complete change not only in pictures, but also in sculpture. In sculpture a greater variety of design was shown, and expression of emotion, and signification in attitude were delineated. A superior technique in accessory ornaments, and utensils also began to appear. The works of the earlier part of this period possessed the characteristics of vigour and exquisite finish. As for the materials, the sculptors used at first, as in the previous psnod, different substances.
But they gradually used less clay and dried lacquer, and instead took to wood for the most part, except in such pcirts as the face or limbs which required careful workmanship. For these they used dried lacquer.
Later on, however, they seem to have given up lacquer entirely. The religious sculptor, Sadatomo, alone, in the first half of the eleventh century, was distinguished by his superior touch. There are not a few remains which are attributed to him. Among these the wooden statue in the Phoenix chapel of the temple of Byodoin, Uji, is one of the master- pieces of Japanese sculpture. The imperial palace was built after the style of the Tang dynasty of China. The dimensions of the site were Jo, from east to west, by Jo, from north to south ; the whole ground was enclosed by a tile wall, with a surrounding moat ; it was connected with the outside by twelve gates.
Within this ground there were built government offices, and the magnificent imperial palace with cinnabar-varnished pillars and blue tiles. Here was a complete design of a Japanese imperial palace, establishing the standard of architecture for the first time.
The palace unfortunately suffered from the ravages of fire fourteen times during the four hun- dred years of this period. But on each occasion it was completely rebuilt. This is one of many incidents showing how Japan has suffered form great fires. Such an enormous expenditure was necessarily sufficient to shake the financial stability of the imperial court.
But, on the other hand, the art of building made an advance as the result of a series of great architectural works. Again, the general spread of the Shinto faith in this period led to the construction of many important Shinto shrines. Thus art in this special line made considerable progress. The development in painting, sculpture, and architecture in this period was such as has just been described. But the artistic development of Japanese customs, especially to be mentioned in the period, is not so much in the pure arts as in the application of them ; that is, the special development was in the direction of various 28 FiNE ARTS industrial arts.
The followers of the family, therefore, exerted themselves in vying with one another to meet the will of their superiors. Such being the general trend of society, it was inevitable that the fine arts of this period should possess no such quality as grandeur or subhmity. As a result, however, of the tendency noted above, all things, from the interior decorations of palaces, temples, mansions, down to ordinary household furniture, utensils, dress of men and women, in fact, all requisites, became extremely elaborate and delicate.
Even a flower or a bird, for instance, of the pattern on cloth, was done so softly and delicately that it possessed a peculiar beauty, quite different from that of the Chinese st le, which was the characteristic of the latter half of this period.
Among various industrial arts, lacquer- work made progress specially in this period. Of the lacquer work, raised-lacquer made considerable advance developing various new kinds of technique. As to textile fabrics, different provinces emulated one another in producing elegant brocade and figured cloth, as the result of encouragement of the industry by emperors and of the general faishion of wearing refined and showy dress.
If one should look at the scarf of Yamato-brocade now preserved in the temple of Ninnaji one would be able to imagine how far art in textile fabrics was developed at that time. The workmanship m metal work was not inferior to either lacquer work or textile work. For instance, there are gold-plated Wcires on which are carved delicate hair lines, or exquisite open-work.
To appreciate the tasks and workmanship of the works of this period one must see the articles. The walls of the chapel, both inside and out, are covered with rough fabrics, on which thick black lacquer is laid, and the walls are entirely covered with gold foil. Inside, the carved pillars and engraved beams are cJl decorated with inlaid work and precious stones. The metalhc parts of the altar are carved with beautiful designs of peacocks and hair-lines, which harmonize with all parts of the chapel.
The period of about twenty years during which the Heike family governed the nation is called the Heike period 1 — 1 At this time the aristocrats of the Fujiwara clan, though they had lost real influence in politics, did not so easily forget their former prosperity and lived in luxurious style. Consequently the aristocrats of the Heike family strove to imitate their deportment and manners.
Thus they seemed to have been in- fluenced before they were aware of it. The fine arts of this period amply prove the real state of affairs that then prevailed. However, since the Heike family was a new power, they had a certain vigour and energy, though surrounded by an atmosphere of effeminacy and ostentation. There do not exist many specimens of the fine art of this period and the only representative work worthy of note is the Hokekyo-sutra dedicated to the Itsukushima Shrine.
The graceful frontispiece, metallic decorations, the elegant make-up of the whole, and especially the raised-lacquer of the casing in which the sutra are enclosed particularly show the design and taste in arts of the Heike period. As to painting in this period it seems to have made some progress in roll pictures.
Mitsunaga Tosa, who flourished in this period, was the most distinguished master in the Yamatoye-picture style of painting. The period of nearly one hundred and forty years, from 1 1 90, when Yoritomo Minamoto established the Shogunate, the feudal government, at Kamakura until the end of the domination of the Hojo family which held the governing power, under the name of regents to the Genji family which lost power after three generations from Yontomo, is called the Kamakura period and is an important period m the history of the fine arts in Japan.
In the imperial capital, Kyoto, the emperor Gotoba continued to encourage the development of literature and art after his accession to the throne in 1 1 In the East, at Kamakura, Yoritomo Minamoto also encouraged the development of culture and learning. After that the culture both of Kyoto and Kamakura, though differing in taste from one another, gradually made steady progress.
Moreover, the Chinese culture began to come in rapidly, as the result of the return of many Buddhist monks from China, and of increasing frequency of communication. Again, when some Chinese Buddhist monks came over to settle in our country, they brought at the same time the teaching of the Zen sect of Budd- nism.
This trend of culture took form in the fine arts of the Kamakura age. Therefore, the works of art in the eairlier stage of this period did not much differ, in general style, from those in the previous age, but as time went on the characteristics of the period graducJly made their appearance. In painting the principal charac- teristic is vigour of manner and simplicity of design.
Such pictures as the portrait of Kiyomori Tciira and that of Yoritomo Minamoto, by the artist Takanobu, now preserved at the temple of Jingoji, Kyoto, and the illustration accompanying the Heiji-monogatari attributed to Keinin Sumiyoshi, do not much differ from the works of the former age in general style. In July, , the Chinese tried to invade Japan with a large force, but were annihilated by our army and by a great storm that shattered the whole invading squadron.
The national consciousness of victory invigorated the popular mind, and manifested itself in the direction of fine art. After that event a considerable number of eminent artists appeared, among them being Nagaaki, son of Nagataka Anenokoji, who pciinted in the ' Pictures Illustrative of the Mongolian Invasion.
After this period the style gradually declined. Kokei, the descendant of the famous artist Jocho who flourished in the Fujiwara period, deserves to be called the father of sculpture in the Kamakura period. From 1 1 88 on he executed the principal Buddhist image of the chapel Nan-en, in the temple of Kofukuji, Nara, and several other works.
His manner was quite realistic, as he inlaid precious stones to form the eyes of wooden images. His son Unkei was superior to his father in artistic execution, and was indeed one of the most eminent sculptors of Japan. In the sculpture of Unkei was realised the aesthetic thoughts of the first part of this period when the power of the military class was about to rise. Compared with the works of former ages, his execu- tion is fcir more refined and magnificent, and represents very faithfully the spirit of the age.
Although there are a few works all over the country attributed to him, yet the most authentic are the wooden statues of the two Buddhisattvas Muchaku and Seshin in the temple of Kofukuji, Nara. The statues aie models of this class of sculpture which aims at expressing an intrepid spirit.
The Daibutsu — the Great Buddha — of Kamakura is said to have been cast in The gravity of countenance of the statue gives one an idea of the type of personality which ancient people worshipped. But, as nothing can run counter to the spirit of the times, so sculpture after this date began to lose its lofty and refined expression. This was probably due to the gradual change and decline in the religious worship.
The circhitecture of this period first followed the forms of the previous age and did not make any new departure. But with the introduction of the teaching of the Zen sect in the second half of the period architecture came to be influenced by the style of the Sung dynasty of China, and developed a style of a peculiar kind. This was the so-called ' Zen sect architecture,' and was most widely adopted in the Ashikaga period that followed.
The Kamakura period was, after all, an age when the military spirit prevailed. Therefore, the development of sword-making and manufacture of other weapons as industrial arts, was only natural. Elspecially, the emperor Gotoba encouraged the industry from the beginning of this period and was so enthusiastic as to call together sword makers from ditferent provinces and to manufacture in person swords with the assistance of court officials. One can sufficiently well imagine how the progress in the making of arms was brought about m this period.
As to various decorations in connection with arms, there was a harmonious combination of the extravagant taste of the former age with practical utility. Armour and other warlike accoutrements of this period became the standard, and later generations added further improvements.
The most famous swordsmith of this age was Myochin. Not only in arms, but also in other kinds of metallic industrial arts, there were many noteworthy products. Between 1 1 90 and I 1 99, Yoritomo Minamoto, caused the Daibutsu of Nara to be repaired and after that a considerable number of Buddhist images were cast. Consequently, all accessory articles necessary to the Buddhist rites, were also made in increased quantities.
The most farhous production, and looked upon as the best of this date, is the vase of copper on which the figure of a tree-peony is carved in half- relief, now preserved m the temple of Hokkeji, Nara. In lacquer work, the use of gold materials was further improved. The most famous productions now preserved are the toilet-case of raised lacquer with the picture of the Chosei-den, in possession of Prince Tokugawa, the case of raised-lacquer with figures of butter- flies, in possession of Count Matsudaira, the ccmb case in the Mishima shrine, Idzu, etc.
When Yoshimitsu Ashikaga assumed the office of Shogun, he built a mansion at Muromachi in Kyoto, dedi- cated temples of the Zen sect, began to carry on intercourse with Korea and China, and gradually embarked on the realization of peaceful undertakings. After he resigned office, he indulged in various diversions and pastimes, building the Kinkakuji the Golden Pavilion at Kitayama, Kyoto, laying out beautiful landscape gardens, sending men to China to collect specimens of handwriting, paintings, and rare ornaments.
By this time, the influence of the Ashikaga house was not so powerful as it had been, and as Yoshimasa did not take the responsibility of politics upon himself, but put all matters in charge of a chancellor, there broke out disturbances in Kyoto, and the whole country was also affected. Yet Ycshimasa did not pay much attention to national affairs and devoted himself to luxury, feasting and tasteful diversions. When he retired from office in 1 , he constructed a new mansion at Higashiyama, the Ginkakuji the Silver Pavilion , in imitation of the Kinkakuji, that he might pass his remaining years quietly and taste- fully.
He originated rules for the tea ceremony. In this way developed the fine arts of the Ashikaga period : its painting and sculptures were executed not for religious worship, as was the case in preceding ages, but mainly for admiration and amusement. Another stimulus to the furtherance of the art of painting Wcis the new demand for Kakemono, a hanging picture, as the result of complete change in the style of building, and of providing an alcove even in the houses of common people.
There is nothing particular to be said about the pictures and the artists of the Yamato-ye style except one artist, in the latter half of the period, — Mitsunobu Tosa, who was the master that restored the Tosa school. Now there appeared at about this time a great change worthy of note in the history of painting in Japan ; that is, the rise of the so-c ailed Sung- Yuen picture. The simplicity and noble lone which were the characteristics of this style of painting, happily agreed with the taste of the Zen sect then widely believed in, thereby effecting considerable progress.
Cho-Densu was not only skilful in black-ink painting, but also in coloured painting. If one should compare other painters belonging to this school with him, one would find that all the others look like amateur painters.
In — , there appeared Josetsu, whose pupil I Shubun — was a noted painter. There were many distinguished painters among the pupils of Shubun, the most famous being the monk Sesshu. Sesshu went to China in 1 and travelled over a wide area seeking beautiful scenery and noted places, by which he gained no small advantage. Among the pupils of Sesshu there was Sesson, who followed the manner of his master, and further improved upon it. He was perhaps the most advanced of this school of painting, in his bright and free use of strong and soft black ink.
Masanobu Kano studied the manner of painting of Shubun and Soshu, and followed a Chinese artist in the painting of persons, thus establishing a distinct school. He is indeed the founder of the Kano school. Motonobu, son of Masanobu, succeeded to the style of his father, learning the art of the Sung and the Yuen dynasty of China.
He also studied the Yamatoye -picture, and by combining the two styles at last established his school firmly. His influence was so powerful that all the other schools were finally overwhelmed. After 1 that time many thousands of painters of the Kano school appeared during the course of about three hundred years, but no one changed or improved upon his manner or form, which goes to prove the superiority of his art.
Though there were a few good statues executed in the early part of this period, the greater part of the sculpture was carved in adherence to mere formality and did not show life ; though there were some the outside decoration of which was quite elaborate and beautiful, yet they were lacking in fundamental spirit and were only imitations of former works. It was about this time that the No dance became quite fashionable, which gave an impetus to the development of good artists to make the masks to be used in the dance.
Among the masks made in this period there remain to-day some that are of excellent workmanship. Musical dancing and acting in the first place, had been practiced from very remote ages, and became very fashionable in the Heian period. Therefore, the masks used to be made in connection with these pastimes, and became further elaborated in this period when the No dance made its appearance.
What is worthy of attention in the architecture of this period was the so-called ' Zen architecture. The characteristic of this kind of architecture is simplicity. After the tea ceremony became fashionable, from the latter part of this period, there developed yet another style of architecture and gardening, suitable to the principles of simpKcity, savouring of the taste of the Zen sect.
As to the works in metal in the early part cf this period, the conditions were about the same as in the previous age. His carvings show brightness and vigour. He was the founder of the Goto family, which flourishes at present after seventeen generations. During the period from I to 1 , armour as well as other military equipment was actively manufactured. It is said that Mune- yasu, the tenth descendant of Myochin, made a suit of armour by order of the Shogun Yoshimitsu and received warm praise from him.
Workmanship in respect to the sword-guard made also decided progress. As the tea ceremony was fashionable in this period there were produced fine works in cast iron tea kettles. The tea kettle made at Ashiya is the most famous. There are fine works of Ashiya tea kettles with landscape designs by Sesshu. Tenmyo of Shimozuke is also famous for the production of fine tea kettles. The so-called ' Ko-Tenmyo ' — old Tenmyo, — are fine tea kettles cast in this period.
Lacquer work made also considerable progress in this period. The art of making high raised lacquer, plain raised lacquer, polished lacquer, and aventurine lacquer, were all brought to a high degree of perfection. For instance, formerly in raised lacquer work all figures, such as flowers or birds, were separately done, but m this period the art was so far advanced that pictures of landscapes or human beings, in the style of the Sung and Yuen pictures, were directly and har- moniously depicted.
Of all the industrial arts in Japan, the art of radsed lacquer alone was not influenced by the art of either China or Korea. On the contrary, China sent artists in — to study the art of our raised lacquer. Ordinary black lacquer was ex- cellently done as well. Consequently, fine tea cases were produced in black lacquer which was suited to the taste of expert tea-makers.
Japan had produced pottery from very remote ages, but none of it was glazed. About the middle of the previous period, Kagemasa Shirozaemon, Kato at Seto, Owari, used glaze of a light brown colour, for the first time. He went to China in to study further the process of pottery manufacture and came back in With the spread of the fashion of tea ceremony in the middle of this period, the tea-service was more and more demanded.
Such varieties of pottery as Shino- yaki, Shigaraki-yaki Bizen-yaki, Karatsu-yaki, and Raku-yaki made their appearance successively. These styles of pottery were mostly made to suit the taste of expert tea-makers, and seem at first sight quite primitive and simple in their make-up. But on careful inspection one would find that they possess a peculiar beauty. These works are now highly valued — more than the elaborate works of later days.
The period was too short, and was not fully developed ; the fine arts of this period had a great prospect, but their development was prematurely stopped. The painter who faithfully expressed the spirit of this period was Yeitoku Kano. When Nobunaga Oda completed the building of the castle of Azuchi, he ordered Yeitoku to decorate with pictures the ' Hall of Painting,' for the execution of which injunction Nobunaga expressed his high admiration.
The tone and manner of his pcuntings, are full of vigour and strength, showing his intrepid character- About this tim. It is probable that he was influenced by the spirit of the time. Unfortunately, he died prematurely and had no opportunity to ripen his skill. Sanraku, the pupil and adopted son of Yeitok u, was patronized by Hideyoshi, who, it is said, ordered him to undertake the great part of the decoration of the Castle of Momovama.
Yusho Umikita, also a pupil of Yeitoku, was another distinguished painter, who established a distinct school of his own. Togan Kumotani and Tohaku Hasegawa were also noted painters. Hideyoshi as well as Nobunaga, was angry at the presumption of monks, and administered severe punishment, which caused the decline of the Buddhist arts. To counterbajance this, the building of palaces, castles, mansions, as well as the patronage of industrial arts such as sculpture, metallic work, lacquer ware, which were used as decorations, were all actively undertaken.
There are many works of this period that remain today. It was only natural that there should be development in making arms when the warrior families of Oda and Toyotomi were in power. In short, this period was distinguished by the rise of powerful heroes, and consequently all the fine arts as well as industrial arts were influenced by the temper of the chief warriors, and were generally grand and magnificent in their style.
In this period, such masters of the tea ceremony as Jowo Takeno and Rikyu Sen appeared and taught the art of tea making to valiant warriors of the whole country. The art was peculiarly suited to ameliorate the rough manners of the warrior. This is worthy to be regarded as a chief source of pride of this period. Now, let us recall to our minds the general condition of the cirts in this period by examining the skill and style of the artist Koyetsu Hon-ami. His family followed for generations the pursuit of polishing swords.
He was a versatile man, to begin with : was so skilful in handwriting that he was considered one of the three masters in the Tensho era; was also skilful in painting. He first studied the Yamatoye-picture, and then, taking it as a foundation, used to paint the pictures in a style peculiarly his own. He also made fine tea cups, and lacquer ware on which his pictures were applied. His charac- teristics were fully manifested in all branches of art which he under- took. The rules of the tea ceremony were first organized by the master of the art, Shuko, at the lime of the Shogun Yoshimasa Ashikaga, and they were gradually developed and im- proved upcn, until they were perfected by Rikyu.
The rules of the tea ceremony, perfected hundred years ago, have undergone considerable changes during the Tokugawa period. Consequently it is not easy at the present time to understand the rules maintained at the time when the ceremony was most perfect. The ceremony is apt to be misunderstood and is thought to run into empty forms and to aim at curiosity.
The truth is exactly the contrary. The funda- mental principles of the ceremony lie in avoiding excessive rigour of formed etiquette and in reforimng the roughness of men given to eccentric imagination. Therefore, the ornamental handwriting, paint- ings, and various utensils used in connection with the tea ceremony are of a peculiar, established characteristic.
They constitute certainly a species of fine cirt, even today, if we are able to understand their true spirit. In 1 , lyeyasu fought and defeated Mitsunari Ishida at Sekigahara, and at last came to possess authority over the state. He was finally appointed Shogun in 1 He entered into friendly relations with Korea, began commercial intercourse with China, and granted freedom of communication with the South Sea Islands, India, Portugal, Spain, England, as well as Holland.
As a result the number of foreign ships that used to visit Japan was not small, and foreign civilization seemed to be entering the country by degrees. But, the shogunate prohibited by law the propagation of Christianity in 1 , expelled foreign missionaries and forbade foreign ships to enter Japanese ports, thus entirely cutting off communica- tion with foreign countries. After that measure the policy of the Tokugawa Shogunate was concentrated m promoting national peace and in contriving the permanence of the Shogunate.
In this way the Tokugawa Shogunate effected the tranquillity of more than years. The contmuance of national tranquillity encouraged the progress of the fine arts, and brought about a splendid epoch in the history of art. Unfortunately, the spirit of setting a limit to everything interfered with the develop- ment of reforms in art : the progress was only partial for art never freed itself from the traditions of former ages. The paintings in the earlier stage of this period were almost, all of the Kano school.
Then flourished Mitsunobu, son of Yeitoku. He was highly thought of and incessantly employed by the Shogunate, and became the founder of the so-called Yedo-Kano school. He had two younger brothers, Naonobu and Yasunobu ; Tsunenobu, son of Naonobu, was also a master. Sansetsu, the adopted son of Sanraku, who was the founder of the so-called Kyo-Kano school, was also, no common artist.
In this period, there appeared several hundred artists belonging to the Kano school, and yet all of them were contented with imitating the works of their pre- decessors, saying that they wanted to uphold the peculiar style of the school. Thus all the pictures of the Kano family after the time of Tannyu seemed cast m a mould.
If any of the pupils of the school dared to paint in different and independent style he was at once expelled 42 FINE ARTS and was doomed to failure in his art. Morikage Kudzumi was said to have been such a man. The pictures he painted do not show any wonderful originzility, but they display a certain free spirit, showing his bold and open-hearted temperament.
Itcho Hanabusa was a pupil of Yasunobu, and was the founder of the Hanabusa school. It is said that he was expelled from the school as he disobeyed the instruction of his master. Especially he offended the Shdgunate and was banished to Oshima-island off Idzu. He lived twelve years in exile, and seems to have decidedly improved his skill while away from Yedo, at that time the centre of extravag- ance and indolence.
His skill in painting flowering plants was indeed perfect and unparalleled. We only regret that his works are lacking in dignity and are not free from a certciin rustic flavour. Besides the Kano school there was the Tosa school, which produced throughout many generations from the Fujiwara period sev- eral masters, but which seemed to have disappeared from the time of Mitsunobu in the middle of the Ashikaga period. In the begmmng of this period, flourished Mitsunori, whose son Mitsuoki inaugurated a new departure in painting cifter studying the style of his own school as well cis that of the Kano school and of the Tang pictures.
Mitsuoki was the father of the revival of the Tosa genre. He and Tannyu of the Kano school are rightly considered the two champions of painting in the early stages of the Tokugawa period. There was yet another master among the pupils of Mitsunori. Indignant at seeing the decay of the Tosa school, he specially exerted himself to restore the school to its former dignity. Hirozumi, son of Jokei, was also a noted painter.
These two painters were so skilful in painting that they were able to establish a distinct school. But, after they were gone there was no painter to succeed to their style. Thus, all the allied schools that applied themselves to the painting of Yamatoye-pictures have gradually declined. Then appecired Totsugen Tanaka and also Ikkei Ukita, whose works are now specially valued as he is remembered to have been a strong loyalist.
Tameyasu Okada, sometimes known under the ncime of Reisen, was very skilful in copying, and was famous for making coun- terfeit pictures, for which his works were generally detested by the public. But, latterly there are many people who value his works for their charming technique. An artist of this period who resembled in his manner of painting Koyetsu of the previous period was Sodatsu Tawaraya, whose pen- name was Inen.
He painted chiefly flowers and plants, exhibiting nis s kill in the use of colours. He died at the age of fifty six, in His style was altogether distinct from previous styles ; sometimes rough and simple, to the verge of childishness ; sometimes elaborate and finished ; sometimes vigorous and grand.
He was indeed such a master as is rarely seen. His younger brother Kenzan was also skilful in painting. Among those who studied under Korin, was Shiko Watanabe. Ho-itsu Sakai studied the manner of the two artists above mentioned, and was quite widely known. There are many of his works still extant. A branch of painting which belonged to the Yamatoye style of pic- tures, and which considerably advanced in this period, was the Ukiyoye picture.
The subjects of this style of painting were mostly everyday! At first this style of picture was regarded as vulgar, and was thought not dignified enough to be worthy of appreciation by educated people. There are a few of his works that remain today, but rarely with his name and seal. On the tablet of the ' Thirty six Celebrated Poets,' at the Kita-in Temple of Kawagoye, Musashi, his name is signed together with those of other painters, showing that the work was finished in An artist vyho did much for the Ukiyoye painting, after Sho-i, was Moronobu Hishikawa, who Wcis born in the province of Awa near Tokyo.
He went to Yedo Tokyo and studied the style of Sho-i. He established a school of his own, known under the name of the Hishikawa school, of which there are mcuiy pictures now extant. Among artists who studied the style of the school of Hishikawa, there Wcis Cho-shun Miyakawa, who first studied the manner of the Tosa school.
He was skilful in paiinting pictures of women, — beautiful women — , and at last established the Miyagawa school. At about the Scime time with Cho-shun there was an artist called Kiyonobu Tori-i, who devised the picture sign board to be hung up in front of theatres. He chiefly pcdnted portraits of actors, the style of which is called the Tori-i school.
Among the pupils of Kiyonobu there was Masanobu Okumura, who was skilful in painting ludicrous phcises of customs and manners. Sukenobu Nishikawa was a dis- tinguished artist of Kyoto, who painted much for illustrations of books.
Shunsho, a pupil of Shun-sui Katsukawa, who was himself a pupil of Cho-shun, studied under Sukoku the painting of the Itcho style, while at the same time learning to paint pictures according to the Miyagawa school, and developed his own style, which is known as the Katsukawa school. He published colour prints, which were then in vogue, of portraits of actors and beautiful women, by which he gained a considerable reputation.
Among his pupils there were many noted artists, one of whom was the famous painter Hokusai. An artist who appeared shortly after Cho-shun and Shunsho, was Utamaro Kitagawa. He first studied the style of the Kano school and later established his own school.
Utamaro, however, did not follow the fashion, and chiefly reproduced customs and manners and pictures of beautiful women. Contemporaneously with Utamaro, there flourished an artist called Toyoharu Utagawa, who was noted for his skill in painting theatrical posters. Among his pupils, there was Toyokuni who followed the current fashion and painted portraits of actors.
Toyokuni had many pupils. Among the artists who studied under Shunsho there was Hoku- sai Katsushika. He first studied the Kano and the Sumiyoshi school, while learning at the same time the occidental style of painting. Then he studied the Ukiyoye painting under Shunsho. Later on he left Shunsho and followed the style of Sori Tawaraya, establishing at last his own style of Ukiyoye painting by the combination of different styles.
His fame steadily spread throughout the country and many a pupil sought him to get the benefit of his personal tuition. His origi- nality and gracefulness of design, and ease and lack of restraint of manner are quite familiar to the public. An artist who was distin- guished and who, like Hokusai, established a school of his own, was Hiroshige. He was one of the lower officials of the Shogunate, but turned painter as he was by nature fond of drawing pictures.
Under Toyohiro Utagawa he studied the painting of Ukiyoye pictures, and excelled in drawing photographic pictures of noted places. In fine, the Ukiyoye style of painting was originated by Matabei and completed by Moronobu, Choshun, Shunsho, etc.
Since then, with the decline of the Tok u- gawa shogunate, masters of the style have also ceased to appear. But, with the development of the Yedoye picture, or Azuma-colour- print, Ukiyoye seemed to have made progress. Besides the Ukiyoye picture there is yet another kind of picture which made its appearance first in the Tokugawa period ; namely, the Nanso-picture, or picture of the literary school. From about ] the study of Chinese clzissics became active and many profound scholars appeared, which caused an increased communication with 46 1.
By quite a number of Chinese men of learning had come over to Japan. As a result, a school of painting following the style of the Ming and Tsing dynasties made its appearance in our country. They had each characteristics of their own, but as they were in genera! Of all these men, Chikuden and Kwazan were most distinguished. There are not a few of our countrymen who value pictures by these men so much as willingly to pay many thousands of yen for a single picture. Buncho was a maister of painting of the literary school, or Nangwa, but was cJso skilful in painting in the Hokugwa style and in the Yaimatoye -picture style.
His manner was so free and graceful that he has justly been regarded cis a genius among our painters. The founder of the school was Okyo Maruyama of Kyoto. He Wcis a master with whom none could compete in grace and daintiness of manner.
The so-called Kyoto school was founded by him. Goshun Matsumura first studied the manner of Buson, but later on imitated the style of Okyo, establishing in the end a style of his own which is known as the Shijo school. His younger brother Keibun Matsumura and his pupil Toyohiko Okamoto were also noted artists of the Shijo school.
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